Notice all the discourse markers– expressions that don’t add any information, but allow him to think while he keeps talking (examples: all right, yeah,) and expressions (it hit the $300 mark – means the price was $300).
Present perfect, past continuous and questions. Listen for adverbs
Mark: Have you been to Germany ?
Amy: No, not yet. Have you ?
Mary: Yes, twice. I have (I’ve) visited Berlin and Munich.
Amy: Which did you like best ?
Mary:Well, Munich is very clean, elegant and stylish, but quite expensive.
Amy: And Berlin, the capital ?
Mary: I was working there for six months. It was really cool.
They continue after eating a big piece of pie.
Amy: Sounds like you had lots of fun !
Mary: Oh, yes ! The food was cheap and the people were incredibly friendly.
Amy: How about the weather ? I have heard it can be cold.
Mary: It was terrible ! Every day it rained cats and dogs.
Amy: You must have been so glad to get back to Vietnam. (glad = happy)
Mary: Yes, but I miss the German trains and buses; they were so reliable.
How different is England to Germany ?
This is an interesting question because, despite both being Northern European countries with similar climates and a shared language root, both nations have very strong national identities.
Historically, there is an obvious difference; the two World Wars. This originated from economic conflicts to actual conflicts which consequently altered the map of Europe.
There are many cultural differences, the English see the Germans as very efficient, hard-working, punctual albeit lacking any sense of humour.
Putting myself in their shoes, and based on my experiences of Germany, we Brits are seen as aloof and isolated, preferring tea-breaks to solid work.
These factors notwithstanding, the two countries have a lot in common; protestant religion, not Catholic (mostly), a love of both football and beer. Even our Royal Family has German blood.
Now with Brexit, it will be interesting to see what develops over the next generation. We can only speculate whether the nations move closer together or further apart.
As drunk as a ….. // As dead as a ….. // As brave as a ……
As free as a ….. // As gentle as a …… // As quiet as a ……
Make sentences with these words or expressions:
In a class, write out the words on paper and distribute to the students, either individually or in groups. Give them a time limit and award points for each word used, plus bonuses for interesting or creative sentences.
spectacular / visually stunning / you get what you pay for / mouth-watering / a waste of money / significantly / according to / how can I put it ? / Somewhat / incredibly / as good as gold / as drunk as a skunk /
Also known as ‘indirect speech’, reported speech is used to tell what someone has said.
Three Japanese students, Keiko, Rina & Mei are looking at their new university. Keiko, in the black cardigan says:
Keiko: Now I feel as wise as an owl.
However, with all the street noise, Mei didn’t hear so she asks Rina (who wears a pink and white striped top).
Mei: The building is stunning, but what did Keiko say ?
Rina: She said that she felt as wise as an owl.
Rina uses the past tense to tell Mei what Keiko said – she said she felt as wise as an owl.
Look at these:
Susan: “Mary works in an office.” This is Susan speaking directly.
→Susan said (that) Mary worked in an office. This is someone telling what Susan said.
Notice how the verb changes from present to past tense (‘works’ to ‘worked’).
Susan: “I work in an office.”
→Susan said (that) she worked in an office.
Notice how the pronoun changes from first to third person (‘I’ to ‘she’).
Rewrite the sentences using reported speech
1 ‘Ellie can use my phone,’ said my brother.
1 My brother said that Ellie could use his phone.
2 Benjamin: “I often have a big hamburger.”
2 Benjamin said (that) he often has a big hamburger.
(Pronoun changes from ‘I’ to ‘he’). Here Benjamin is talking about an event that happens frequently, so we keep the present tense ‘have’ but change it to the third-person form ‘has’.
3 ‘I don’t want to sit next to Sam,’ said Jenny.
4 Hannah: “They live in Boston.” Again, this is a present tense situation.
5 Tyler: “Ian doesn’t invite girls to his parties.”
6 Linda: “Did Max fly to London two weeks ago?”
7 Robert: “Dennis often downloads the latest tunes.”
Free speaking exercise
There is a work party and the managers want to know which food to serve.
The options are:
vegetarian / Korean / sea-food / western fast-food / traditional German cuisine
Discuss which food to choose. Run through the pros and cons of each one. Also think about entertainment. Use recently acquired vocabulary:
I adore / I really enjoy / I’m into
I don’t mind … I quite like …. I can take it or leave it
I’m not keen on …. It’s not my cup of tea (idiom, means I don’t like it)
I can’t stand (noun or pronoun) ……. (seafood) / I can’t stand it !
Spicy / bland / hard to eat / unhealthy / fatty
not used to it / doesn’t appeal
you can’t please everyone / each to their own / fussy eater