Irregular verbs are all different. A lot of common verbs are irregular:
have /had // do / did // say / said // be / was/were// go / went // get / got // make / made // take / took
Here are 7 verbs in the PRESENT.
Choose the correct verb AND use it in the correct tense.
teach / live / go / see / drink / am / have
Ms Ha (1) …….. drinking tea yesterday
when she (2) ……. an idea.
I haven’t (3) …….. my neighbours how to drink tea. I am sure they will be happy.
They have not (4) …… to the UK yet.
I have (5) …. in many cities in England.
Now I am in Viet Nam. I have (6) …. many wonderful sights,
but I have never (7) …… a cup of good, English tea.
Grammar – verb practice
Here’s the 15 most common:
infinite / present / past /past participle (verb 3)
1 to be / / am // was /been
you are / / were / been
2 to have / / have / had / had
3 to do // do / did /done
4 to say // say / said / said
5 to go //go / went / gone
6 to get // get / got / gotten
7 to make //make / made / made
8 to know // know / knew /known
9 to think // think / thought / thought
10 to take // take / took / taken
11 to see // see / saw / seen
12 to come // come / came / come
13 to want // want / wanted /wanted
14 to use // use / used / used
15 to find // find / found / found
Grammar: must or have to ? mustn’t or don’t have to
must or have to ? don’t have to or mustn’t
have to = other people tell you // must = your decision
don’t have to = not necessary // mustn’t = is forbidden
You have to have a degree in order to be an engineer
I must stop eating at Lotteria (an Asian fast-food chain like McDonalds) !
You don’t have to bring any beer to the party.
You mustn’t run a red light or use your mobile phone on your motorbike.
The new James Bond film may be sold out.We ______ buy tickets NOW !
I hate parties ! Do I _____ go ?
You _______ eat too much popcorn; it’s bad for you.
You ________ be over 18 to see this film
You don’t ____ bring your passport to get intoa cinema in Viet Nam.
Answers: must / have to / mustn’t / have to / have to
Grammar: Phrasal verbs
Phrasal Verbsand collocations
up with / the fire out / up / on a happy face
it in your own words / up or shut up !/ it away / it another way
well soon / over it ! / on with it / away with murder / on the bus
back to work ! / with the program (US) / some fresh air
Complete the sentences:
She looks so sweet but she never does her job ! She gets …….. at work,
Come on, cheer up ! Put ……. and smile.
If you are so good, you do it ! Put ………..
We are all going to work on the new project together, so get …….. or get a new job !
She is not the thinnest lady in the world. OK, let me put ………. she’s fat !
Stop playing and do your homework. Get ……….
His Thai girlfriend left him. He needs to get ……….
she gets away with murder (is allowed to do bad things) // put on a happy face // put up or shut up (don’t just talk about it – do it OR stop talking) // get with the program (do what everyone wants to do) // put it another way (to say something differently) // get back to work // get over it (stop being sad, and forget the past).
Linking words: and / as well as / and also / along with
These link positives sentences:
I like tea as well as coffee He plays football and also badminton.
How are they dressed ? How do they look (emotions) ?
Tesco Lotus is quite cheap and also has a great choice.
but / however / having said that / on the other hand
These link positives to negatives / negatives to positives:
Jet Mart is convenient. Having said that, it is (it’s) extremely expensive.
Czech beer is fantastic quality, however it’s not easy to find in Sai Gon.
‘therefore’ is a conclusion word:
The Spanish supplier is reasonable (so-so) quality, but more expensive. Therefore, we will use the German supplier in future.
These can be a great way to encourage students to speak and build longer sentences and therefore become more confident in speaking and using English.
Describe what you see in this photo. Use as many adjectives as you can.
Subject first – Do not use a pronoun (he / she / they) Say what you see.
Where are they ? What are they doing ? What do they look like ?
How are they dressed ? How do they look (emotions) ?
What do you think they are talking about ?
I see two young ladies … now try to add more adjectives:
I see two beautiful young Asian ladies. One has very long, straight brown hair. Her friend has medium brown hair, a little wavy.
The lady on the left has a white dress with flowers. The lady on the right wears a blue cotton dress.
Now what are they doing – use continuous verbs – verb + ing
They are talking, laughing and drinking coffee. They are in a nice coffee shop. I see some bags, one yellow, one orange, so I think they like shopping.
Now – your turn. Describe these photos:
I would normally read this aloud and then ask the students the questions. You can alter the speed, the natural chunking sounds, etc, to suit the ability of your class.
I usually go shopping once a week. I sometimes go to Big C but I like shopping at Mega Market. CitiMart is good but it’s a long way from my house. Mega Market is quite near my house so it’s easy to get there. It’s a big supermarket and it has everything I need, which is great. The best thing is that it’s not expensive so I can save money.
How often do I go shopping ? Where do I like shopping ? Why ?
What is the best thing about Mega Market ? Why don’t I go to Citimart ?
Come is where you are NOW: Come here ! Go is for somewhere else: Go away !
I am in Vietnam so – I will goto Thailand, then comeback to Sai Gon.
Always ‘go to’ EXCEPT go home / go shopping / go swimming / go fishing
Kitchen items: What is it for ?
Look how native-speakers link words together:
What is a knife for ? What’s aknife for ? / Sounds like, ‘Whatsa kinffor ?’
A knife is for cutting meat and fish and also vegetables as well as fruit and, not forgetting, bread.
What is a spoon for ? Whatsa spoon for ?
A spoon’s for eating as well as stirring drinks and not forgetting cooking.
What are they for ? They are / they’re scissors (sis zerss) a pair of scissors
Student questionnaire : What do you like, What does he like, she like ?
Vocabulary booster: likes and dislikes
What are they doing ?
Correct all the mistakes in this piece of writing:
Every days I wokes up at between 6.00 am and 6.15 am. I always usually do the same thing namely get up, brush my tooth, put the kettle in and make coffee. Nowever, on last yesterday I getted up at 5.00 because I must to go to the airport to meeting my friend.
I had a hard time get a taxi because it was cats and dogs raining. On the airport there was so much people, all looking exhausted and depressed by the weather bad. I have never come on a plane without one time when I flyed to Ha Noi.
I seemed to wait forever for my friend. Maybe she had a problem immigration. But no I seed her and she looked very cute but also exhausted and also a little smelly.
She needed to freshen up after her long flight.
Instead of wenting to home, we came to a nice coffee shop with great coffees and good music and also so many people so we having to waited for a sit. The coffee made us to wake up so then we came to home but first she wants to doing some shop.
I taked her to Diamond plaza and we saw many shops, a whole multitude of things to see and do. We saw beatiful ao dai from silk made but it was too very expensive; it cost a leg and an arm. So instead we did window shopper which is more cheaper.
It costs an arm and a leg = an idiom that means very expensive.
What is your name / What’s your name ?
What is your job ? What do you do (for a living) ?
Are you married ? Do you have any children ?
[Culture note – in English, we don’t ask people’s age. It is impolite.]
How are you ?
I’m very well, thank you
I’m great / I’m good
I’m so so / I’m OK / I’m not bad = depends on intonation
I’m under the weather (this is an idiom which means a little bit unwell)
[Culture note – in English, we always say ‘please’, ‘thank you’ & ‘sorry’]
do / have / like / love
What does he / she do ? What does she / he love but doesn’t like ?
On Mondays I have / On Mondays he has / She has …
For lunch I eat / He eats / She eats …
What do I like to do ? He likes to / She likes to …
Lessons – I love / He loves / She loves …
I don’t like / He doesn’t like / She doesn’t like …
What do I do after school or work ? What does he do ? What does she do ?
Can I juggle 3 balls ?/ Can he ? / Can she ?
Can I sing a song in English ? Can he ? Can she ?
Which songs can you sing in English ?
Like – love / adore
dislike – hate / detest
Note: hate & detest are very strong !
What do you like ?
Give me two examples of things you like, and two you don’t like.
Example: I adore dogs. I detest cold weather.
He loves … He hates …. They adore …
Use adverbs to make sentences stronger:
I really like films OR I like films very much. I really hate karaoke !
NOT: I very much like films
Negative: I don’t like Karaoke very much. They don’t enjoy karaoke.
What are they doing ?
Try to build long sentences using the continuous verb (verb + ing)
Example: What is he doing ?
He is reading
The dog is reading
The small black and white dog is reading an orange book and smiling.
Now your turn. Match the picture with the sentences then add more information:
eating and talking / singing / playing / sleeping NOT working / drinking / walking / laughing
I am John = I’m John // You are Anna = You’re Anna
Past Continuous exercise
Write positive sentences in past continuous.
I was reading a great book
subject + was / were + verb ing (+ noun, adjective + noun)
you / play / cards /// you were playing cards
Alice / walk / around the lake
Fiona and Sam / visit / the castle
we / read / a book about Australia
my sister / feed / the birds
Greg and Phil / count / their money
Write in the past tense
Andrew (am) born in New York and (come) to Viet Nam in 2016. He (live) in District 1 but it (is) too expensive so he (move) to District 9. Last week, he (have) a party and he (dance) all night and (drink) too much Tiger and Sai Gon Special beer. In the morning, he (catch) a plane and (go) to Ha Noi.
In Vietnam’s capital he (see) Uncle Ho, (hear) traditional music and (buy) many Rolex watches … but they (are make) in China.
Present simple & Present continuous
Present simple & continuous exercise: use always + ing
Tony has lost the key again. He’s always losing the key. [This is permanent.]
My motorbike has broken down again. It is ………… (break + ing)
The rice is burnt ! She is ………. the rice. (burn + ing)
The security guard is asleep. He is ……………… on duty. (sleep + ing)
powerful (very strong), flood (big water), missing (we do not know where these people are, or if they are alive).
Hello, my name is John and I’m from New York. I’m a taxi-driver, and I have been in Vietnam for one year. My hobbies are dancing, watching films and playing computer games. In Asia, I have been to Thailand and Laos and I really want to visit Japan and Korea.
continuous verbs (verb + ing): I like reading.
How many continuous verbs can you see ?
Interests / hobbies
Now you write something and introduce yourself.
Name / Job / How long have you been at (your company or school ?)
Hometown / Hobbies/ Where you want to visit
Try to learn these words / expressions:
like / love / adore /
dislike / hate / detest /
and / as well as / additionally
but / however / on the other hand /
usually / normally / often /
And these adverbs: very / really / extremely / highly / quite / somewhat
Now make short sentences. For example:
I adore coffee as well as tea (I like coffee and tea)
London is extremely expensive. On the other hand, Thailand is quite cheap.
Match the words or expressions:
tired // considering
sometimes // selfish
thinking about // kind of
type of something // exhausted
Not generous // occasionally
Now practice using them:
I can’t go out tonight, I’m ………..
Bill is ……………. buying a new motorbike
Ms Vi only goes to visit her family in Hue ………….. because it is so far.
What ………… laptop are you using ?
Share your sweets with your friends ! Don’t be ……..
What is the best word ?
want / like / need / prefer
She likes coffee but …….. tea
I ….. to speak English to study in USA.
He …. to buy a new Yamaha Exciter but he …… to save up money.
realise / suppose / understand / remember
I ……. we could go shopping and then go swimming.
Do you ……… when you were at school ?
She didn’t …… he was Chinese, so she spoke Korean to him !
A miscellany of lesson notes aimed specifically at basic-level English
Grammar – adjectives // helping verbs // comparatives & superlatives // I used to // modal verbs // much or many ? // past tense exercises // possessives // relative pronouns // should or shouldn’t // some or any // I need // verbs – most common verbs present, past and past participle.
Vocabulary – new words and expressions
Vocabulary – film
Vocabulary – Kitchen
Vocabulary – what do you need ?
Speaking practice – introductions // repairs // future tense
If you meet a new friend or business acquaintance
Hello, how are you ? Very well, thank you, and yourself ? / I’m great
hot, cold, sweet, bitter, Vietnamese, weak, strong, expensive, Indian
Now add a reason – ‘because’, ‘as’
I love good strong coffee because it wakes me up and I also adore sweet Indian tea in the evening as it helps me to unwind.
Make longer sentences:
I like Sai Gon but I don’t like Ha Noi
I like films and I like games
My friend likes street food but he doesn’t like restaurants
Vocabulary – adjectives
standard / higher / / opposite / higher
good / brilliant // bad / terrible
beautiful / gorgeous // ugly / hideous
interesting / fascinating // boring / tedious
expensive / over-priced // cheap / bargain
modern / hip / trendy // old-fashioned / out-dated
gentle / calm // angry / hot-headed
big / massive / huge // small / tiny
important / significant // unimportant / insignificant
tiring / exhausting // relaxing / peaceful
Helping verbs: have / want / need /go / like
Subject + helping verb + infinite …..
I have to find my mobile phone // She goes to work // He needs to relax
Write sentences for these pictures:
He wants ….
She likes ….
Negative: He doesn’t …
Grammar – comparatives and superlatives:
big / bigger / biggest (-er / -est for small words)
interesting / more interesting / the most interesting (more / the most for longer words)
Sai Gon is bigger than Ha Noi
Chinese is the most difficult language to learn
London expensive Sai Gon
Thailand hot Canada
Moroccan food spicy French
Action films exciting rom-com (romantic-comedy)
I used to …
When I was young, I used to play football. Now I am too old !
I do NOT play football NOW. I played football when I was young
Write sentences. Example: When I was young, I used to read comics.
When I lived in Germany I used to …
This pen belongs to me, it is mine.
The laptop belongs to Jane, it is _______
It’s John’s book, it belongs to ______
We all work for HLS, it is ______ company.
Give this to Anna and Gary, it is _______
Grammar: modal verbs
Modal verbs are helping verbs that show
permission (sự cho phép)
possibility (khả năng)
can / could / have to / must / might / should
can’t / couldn’t / don’t have to / mustn’t / mightn’t / shouldn’t
1. Ted’s flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. He must be exhausted after such a long flight. He might prefer to stay in tonight and get some rest.
2. Hiking in the mountains ______ be dangerous. You _____ research the route a little more before you start.
3. You _____ take your umbrella today. The weatherman said there’s a storm in Nha Trang and it ______ rain this afternoon.
4. When you have a small child, you ______ leave small objects lying around. Such objects _____ be swallowed.
5. I _____ believe she said that to the supervisor!
6. Jenny’s wedding ring is enormous! It ______ be very expensive.
7. Please water the plants. If they don’t get enough water, they _____ die.
Try to make sentences:
I need to…. She wants to… You have to… We like to … He hates to …
Much or many ? A little or a few ?
[a few = countable / little = uncountable]
Is there much work left ? I really want a little free time to run some errands.
There are ….. shops in the mall. I need to buy …… items
Is there ….. beer in the fridge, or do I need …… more ?
There are only a … millionaires inVietnam but they have so ….. money.
There are far too ….. karaoke singers. I need …….. peace.
PAST TENSE EXERCISE:
Complete the exercise with the verbs inside the box.
drink / fall / hurt / sell
spend / write
choose one of these verbs and use the past tense form
1. Mozart ……. more than 600 pieces of music.
2. ‘How did you learn to drive?’ ‘My father …….. me.’
3. We couldn’t afford to keep our car, so we ……. it.
4. I was very thirsty. I ……… the water very quickly.
5. Paul and I played tennis yesterday. He’s much better than me, so he ……. easily.
6. Don ……. down the stairs this morning and his leg.
7. Jim …….. the ball to Sue, who …….. it.
8. Ann …….. a lot of money yesterday. She ……. a dress. It ……. £100
Grammar – Present Perfect
Subject + have/ has + past participle
I have been to Ha Noi
She has visited London
They have seen that film so many times but (they) have never understood it.
I have read ‘My Sassy Girl 1’ although I have not read ‘My Sassy Girl 3’
(I haven’t read)
Have you read any good books recently ?
To talk about something in the past but not when it happened
He has looked at the report – YES
He has looked at the report last week – NO
(He looked at the report last week) just use simple past
Can use with ‘for’ and ‘since’
I have lived in HCM since 2010
I have lived in HCM for seven years
Exercises: Put these sentences into present perfect
I John (read) your email several times. John has read your email …. 2. She (wear) that skirt many times. 3. My family (visit) Brazil a few times. 4. I (eat) already. 5. Mia (finish) her homework. 6. You (break) the glass again. 7. They (pay) for everything. 8. It (never snow) like that. 9. I (meet) Anna once. 10. We (see) him before.
Grammar – Relative Pronouns:
who For people: This is the man who sold me the fake Rolex !
which For things: We tried fish and chips which is delicious.
where For places: Let’s go to the shop where we saw the great bargins.
Whose Possessive: That’s the singer whose record we heard last night.
The car, whose driver was young, won the race.
We arrived at a nice beach ______ we could swim and lie in the sun.
A man ______ mobile phone was ringing did not know what to do.
The patient, ______ had a serious disease, was taken to hospital immediately.
Smithsfield is a small village ______ people live a quiet life.
A boy ____ sister is in my class was in the bank at that time.
I know a person ____ can speak seven languages.
We visited the church _____ is in the middle of the square.
It is a protected area of land _____ you can see a lot of interesting wildlife.
This dress is made of silk, _____ is a very expensive and delicate material.
Grammar: should / shouldn’t
Complete the sentences. Use the verb in brackets. Sometimes the verb will be nagative Use contractions where possible.
It’s cold. You … a cardigan. (wear)
She’s always tired. She … to bed late every night. (go)
… now? (we / leave)
You … some fruit or vegetables every day. (eat)
The students … their mobile phones in the exam. (use)
You … the teacher to help you if you don’t understand the lesson. (ask)
People … fast in the town centre. (drive)
… the dress or the skirt? (I / buy)
Grammar: ‘some’ or ‘any’
we use ‘some’ for a statement
we use ‘any’ for a negative or a question
There are some great websites for learning English. PLURAL / countable
There is some Czech beer on sale at VinMart. PLURAL / uncountable
There aren’t any beer clubs near here
We don’t have any French cheese
Are they any good films playing ?
Do you have any English tea?
1 Do you have ______ questions about the new project ?
2 Let me give you _______ advice.
3 You don’t need to bring ____ pens or paper. There will be ______ print-outs available.
4 There will be _____ visitors from Germany coming. Do you know ____ German ?
Jim I can’t wait for Tet. Do you have any plans ?
Alf Of course ! I’m going to watch some films and get some rest.
Jim Have you bought any special food ?
Alf I don’t have any time for shopping. I’ve still got some beer. How about you ?
Jim I need to buy some fruit, some biscuits, and do I need any special food for Tet ?
Alf Absolutely ! You must buy some cakes and some sweets.
Jim Anything else ? I need some advise.
Alf Just make sure you have some beer. A LOT of beer. Cheers !
Grammar: I need
subject need (helping verb) infinite verb (to + verb) completion
I need to visit a dentist
She needs to stop buying clothes !
subject need (helping verb) article / determiner noun
He needs a laptop / I need the report
We need some overtime / She needs a bottle of water
I need tôi cần // I want tôi muốn
1 I ____ to visit Thailand. 2 He ______ to find a job now !
3 Her mother ____ her to get married. 4 Do you ____ to see Twin Peaks ?
5 She can’t go out, she _____ to finish her homework.
6 They _____ new shirts but they ______ to buy computer games instead.
Some items are essential (very important) Some are useful
Some are luxury items (don’t really need them)
EXAMPLE: I think a fridge is essential. However, a meat slicer is a luxury item.
What are they made of and what are they used for ?
EXAMPLE: A toaster is made of metal and is used to toast bread.
What do you need …. ?
What do you need to make pho ?
What do you need to ride a motorbike ?
What do you need for a party ?
What animals do you need for a zoo ?
What do you need to do before you go out ?
Sentence building – verb practice
REMEMBER: ‘to be’ is different:
I am busy / you are busy / she is busy
I was busy / you were busy / she was busy
I was quite busy / really busy / I was extremely, incredibly busy !
I have been busy / you have been busy / she has been busy
Look at this picture: describe what you see
First – what is the subject ? A man
What does he look like ? Adjectives
What is he wearing ? Colour, material, pattern
Where is he ? What is he doing ?
A young man with short dark hair, dressed in a dark suit, white shirt and black and white spotted tie is sitting in a restaurant or coffee shop. He is drinking from a small white cup. We know he is drinking damn fine coffee !
Write the subject first ( A young man ). THEN, you can use pronouns (he).
Write long sentences for one of these pictures.
Colin Good morning, I’m Colin.
Mike Pleased to meet you, Colin. I’m Michael but call me Mike.
Colin Thanks, Mike. Have you worked at ….. long ? (a long time ?)
Mike Yes, quite long; about five years. Oh, I like your phone.
Colin Thank you. It’s an LG which is much better, I think, than Apple.
Mike Where did you get it ? (buy it)
Colin Tokyo, where there are so many phone stores.
Mike I really want to go ! Have you met Ms Mi who works in HR ?
Colin Not yet … but she looks very pretty ! (gorgeous / adorable)
Ben Excuse me … is this seat taken ?
Fred I’m sorry ?
Ben May I sit here ?
Fred Oh,by all means. I’m Fred.
Ben Pleased to meet you, Fred. I’m Ben. Are you German ?
Fred Yes, from Berlin, which is the capital. I’m here for three days.
Ben Then you should go to Ben Thanh market where you can buy a Rolex.
Fred Too expensive. My job is great but the salary is terrible !
Ben Ms Na, who works in HR , has a Rolex. Only 400 000 VND.
Fred Really … ? Fake ?
Ben That’s it ! Made in China ! You have a meeting here ?
Fred Yes, with Ms Na; she is gorgeous and so adorable… is she married ?
Ben Yeah … she’s my wife !
Something is either working OR not working
The watch is working The watch is broken – it is not working
I am repairing it – it WAS broken, now it is working again. It has been repaired.
The motorbike is broken. It needs to be repaired / fixed / mended
The mechanic is repairing / fixing / mending the motorbike
It is repaired / fixed / mended
Peter Hi, Mark. How’s it going ? (how are you ?)
Mark Not bad. However, I have a problem. My laptop’s broken.
Peter Oh, dear. What kind is it ?
Mark It’s a PC (personal computer).
Peter Oh, I understand. They are good but sometimes are flawed.
Mark Where can I get it fixed? Do you know somewhere ?
Peter Sure, no problem. There are many shops near here.
Mark Can you take me ?
Peter Sorry, my bike has a problem. It’s not working.
Mark I’ll take a look. Maybe I can mendit. I enjoy fixing engines.
Peter Brilliant. It costs so much to repair a bike.
Mark And it costs so much to use Grabbike every day !
Dialogue practice (ordinal numbers, phrasal verbs, future tense)
Harry and Martin are chatting at work.
Harry What are you going to do tonight ?
Martin I will knock off about 6, then I’m going to the cinema.
Harry What are you going to see ?
Martin Not sure. My girlfriend’ll choose. I’m picking her up later.
Harry Sounds fun ! I’m going to drop off my laundry, then I’ll go swimming.
Martin What days are your taking off for Tet ?
Harry The 14th, 15th and 16th. Then I’ll come back to work.
Martin Why ? Do you have to finish off some work ?
Harry No, I want to start working on the 4th German project.
Now practice – in small groups or pairs, what are YOU going to do tonight or on your free day ?
After work, I will go to the cinema // This weekend I want to drink beer
Tonight, I’m going to meet some friends // I will hang out with my Thai girlfriend.
Use adjectives and extend the sentences:
After work, I will go to the big cinema at Diamond Plaza to see a new American movie.
On Saturday, I’ll (I will) meet my beautiful Thai girlfriend and we will eat delicious and healthy sushi.
What do we do when we go to the airport to catch a flight ?
Take a taxi/ buy a ticket / board the aeroplane / go through security
claim baggage / go thorough immigration / go though customs
check in / buy duty-free / pack your bags
You are flying from Sai Gon to Hue. Where do you go in the airport ?
What will you do at check in ?
What documents do you need ?
How can you check in ? Two ways …
What happens at security ?
Things you love, things you hate ! Try to make long sentences using adverbs and discourse markers (linking words such as furthermore, additionally, however, although etc)
What do you see here ?
Start with the subject or subjects.
What are they doing ? Where do you think they are ?