Beginners’ English: ‘Have to’ or ‘must’ ?

1st July 2020

Two Asian College Girls Doing Stock Footage Video (100% Royalty ...

‘must’ or ‘have to’

‘have’ is a main verb, ‘must’ is a modal auxiliary verb

have can be followed by to + verb, and can be used in different tenses 

e.g. I have to go home

He has to do his homework

I had to write two reports (past tense)

A lot of fear': Asian community a target of racism amid ...
We have to wear a face mask

‘must’ is an auxiliary verb so:

is followed by a main verb

is never used with ‘to’

I must exercise NOT I must to exercise

Why exercise is best medicine | The Guardian Nigeria News ...
They must keep fit, they must exercise

‘have to’

an obligation made by someone else

‘must’

an obligation made by yourself

I have to get a visa to enter China OR not allowed into China

New Entry-Exit Measures Issued for Foreigners Traveling to China ...

I must do more exercise [This is MY choice, not forced.]

Rapid rise in obesity in India: Facts and reasons - Education ...
I must do more exercise … I must do A LOT more exercise. I must stop eating pizza and pasta !

‘have to’

Sub + have to + infinite

POSITIVE: She has to try harder

NEGATIVE: He does not have to work tomorrow

QUESTION: Do you have to be so noisy ?

‘must’

Sub + must + base verb

I must sleep soon

You must go shopping

He must be nicer to his sister

Negative: Students must not (mustn’t) cheat in class

Question: Must we visit your family ?

Exercises: (answers at end of blog)

1. Yesterday I ________ finish my geography project.

 must
 mustn’t
 had to

2. She will ________ wait in line like everyone else.

 must
 have to
 has to

3. All employees ________ on time for work.

 must be
 mustn’t
 have to

4. We ________ forget to take the chicken out of the freezer.

 have to not
 must
 mustn’t

5. If you are under 13 you _____ to get your parents’ permission.

 have
 must
 musn’t

6. Your daughter may ________ try on a few different sizes.

 have to
 had to
 must

7. You _____ get here as soon as you can.

 must
 mustn’t
 have to

8. Do you _____ work next weekend?

 have to
 must
 mustn’t

9. Bicyclists _____ remember to signal when they turn.

 mustn’t
 must
 has to

10. Angela, you _____ leave your clothes all over the floor like this.

 mustn’t
 must
 have to

Not In My House! When You Can't Take the Mess in Your Teenager's Room

ANSWERS

1 had to // 2 had to // 3 must be // 4 mustn’t // 5 have // 6 have to // 7 must // 8 have to // 9 must // mustn’t //

Beginners’ English: Introducing yourself

25th June 2020

Saying Hello To Students From Home Stock Image - Image of students ...
Happy Student Greeting A Friend Stock Photo - Image of beige ...

Introducing youself:

Hello, my name is Paul and I’m from London. I’m an English teacher, and I have been in Vietnam for about 2 years. My hobbies are reading books, watching films and listening to music. In Vietnam, I have been to Ha Noi and Hue and I really want to visit Hoi An and Halong Bay.

about: with time. I have been studying English for about 6 months.

really: adverbs I am happy / I am really happy – stronger and more interesting

continuous verbs: I like to read / I like reading / She likes to read

5 amazing Nigerian books to read while traveling - Jumia Food ...

She likes reading

East indian people watching movies Stock Photos - Page 1 : Masterfile

They like watching movies

SOLO ARTIST | IU

She likes listening to music

Introduce yourself, and answer the questions:

Name

What is your hometown ?

How long have you lived in your town or city ?

What are your hobbies ?

Where do you want to visit ?

World heritage in Turkey: Historical areas of Istanbul with ...
Istanbul, Turkey
MOSCOW - RUSSIA [ HD ] - YouTube

present perfect: 

sub + have/has + verb 3 (past participle)

I have visited Ha Noi

She has eaten Thai food

We have seen Barcelona play football

COOK WITH ME | Easy Peasy Red Thai Curry Meal Prep - YouTube
She has eaten Thai food

Look out for plurals and 3rd person verb endings

I like sports / he loves cooking /

I don’t like smoking / She doesn’t like smoking

I like playing computer games/ reading books/ watching films.

He likes playing football / going to the park / studying English

VIDEO: Turkish man proposes to his fiance in front of the Kaaba ...
Brooklyn, NY - Alphabet City Chess Match Photo Captures Moment Of ...

Beginners’ English: What’s it for ?

25th June 2020

What is it for ?

What is a knife for ? 

Japanese Masamune Kitchen Gyuto Chef's Knife 180mm 7.1 inch ...

A knife is for cutting meat and fish and also vegetables as well as fruit and not forgetting bread. 

We link ideas with conjunctives – and / as well as / and not forgetting

What is a spoon for ? What’s a spoon for ?

Pronounced “Whatsa spoon for ?”

Vintage Aluminium Kitchen Spoon Large USSR Soviet Soup | Etsy

A spoon’s for eating as well as stirring drinks and not forgetting cooking.

High Quality Stock Photos of "coffee"

What are they ? They are / They’re scissors (siszerss)

Scissors - Wikipedia

What are they for ?

Scissors are for cutting paper and cutting hair as well as cutting chili and not forgetting shirts and material.

10 best peelers 2019 – top y-shaped and swivel peelers for ...

A vegetable peeler is for peeling vegetables but also for peeling fruit such as mango or apple and peach and nectarine.

We use ‘such as‘ to give examples:

I love spicy food such as Thai, Mexican and Korean

까니짱 G-NI - Eating Korean spicy fried chicken drumsticks | Facebook

Beginners’ English:Grammar exercises

23rd June 2020

Information for applicants from Vietnam - Queen Mary University of ...

Grammar

Tenses

  1. past
  2. present
  3. future

infinite verb = to + base verb (NO tense).

I + like + infinite verb + object

I like to play guitar // I love to listen to music //

I + like + verb+ing + object: I love playing guitar

Asian woman playing the guitar | The girl playing the guitar… | Flickr

NEVER – I like to listening to music

Tell me about yourself:

At university, my major was accounting and I have worked for 8 years.

Boy = son Girl = daughter.

I have one son, who is 3 and one daughter who is 1.

My manager is a lady (or woman) and she is professional, very friendly and nice. She has short black hair and an oval-shaped face. Usually, she wears a short black dress. My manager, whose name is Dung, always helps and supports me.

20 Asian Short Hair Ideas Perfect for Pinays | All Things Hair PH

Pho is the traditional food of VN. It is soup with noodles, meat (beef, chicken), vegetables and herbs. It can be spicy if we add chilis. It comes with fresh herbs, vegetables and lime.

New idiom: bear with me= please wait a very short time.

My friend is a 29 year-old man. He has an oval-shaped face and short black hair. He is not very tall, he is quite short. However, he is very friendly and funny.

20 Black and White Portraits of a Young Al Pacino During the 1970s ...

Adjectives– size then colour.

He has a large black bag. She plays a big brown guitar

adverbs– very, (a lot) quite (a little)

London is very expensive. Bangkok is quite cheap

exterior / interior = outside / inside

I went on holiday to Singapore with my friend. We went to a shopping mall and visited some museums and enjoyed the food. Seafood at Singapore is very cheap compared to Viet Nam and it was very delicious. I bought some clothes and shoes for my baby. We stayed for four days and the flight took two hours. I will return and revisit the shopping mall.

10 Best Malls in Singapore for an Ultimate Shopping Experience ...
Shopping mall, Singapore

Dialogue

Two friends are in a coffee shop

Cath This is a great cup of coffee ! Ok, what shall we do next ?

Di I have to run to the bank. I need to deposit some money.

Cath Good idea, I wanted to use an ATM. I also need to buy some dollars.

Di You can check the exchange rate at my bank. It’s not far, we can walk. 

How to Deal with a Friend Who Talks Finances | SoFi

Quick questions: How was your weekend ?

My weekend was quite fun.

How about (tell me about) the evening ?

We watched TV and listened to some music. I like V-Pop

I like K-pop very much OR I really like K-pop.

Directions

Where is the bank? Where’s the bank ?

How do I get to the park?

Is there an ATM nearby ?

Go straight

Turn left or turn right

turn around

keep going until you …..

take the second turning on your left

cross the road / street by the ….

go as far as the …… then ….

It’s opposite the …

We are at the bus station and we need coffee ! 

Is there a coffee shop nearby ?

Yes, turn left then go straight and keep going and it’s on your left.

Excuse me, where is the hospital, please ?

Yes, go straight and then turn left on second avenue keep going straight , the hospital is opposite the park.

Answer these two questions:

I have finished work at school. I need to go to the police station but I don’t know the area.

Xin loi, sorry, I don’t speak Vietnamese. I must go to the police station but I don’t know this area.

Adverbs

so / very / extremely / incredibly

It is hot = it is so hot !

What did you do ? Past tense

On Saturday I drank beer and ate seafood for example, I had shrimp (prawn), octopus, fish, squid. We had lots of fun. Some people drank about six beers but I only drank a little.

Travelling to Thailand

Chubby Hubby - Sawadee ka! Rules of etiquette When travelling in ...

In Thailand, the food is extremely hot (spicy) because they use a lot of chilis.

My Sony camera is very good (excellent) because the picture quality and colours are very clear.

The lens can zoom in 50 metres. The camera was reasonably-priced however, if you buy more lenses, the price increases.

I’m going to take pictures NOT I’m going to taking pictures

Thai Women: Best Wives & Beautiful Brides from Thailand
Sawass dee ka from Thailand

Adult Speaking Class, level 1: What do they like ?

22nd June 2020

An exercise for lower-intermediates. Help to use basic verbs, and to build long sentences.

We can see five people:

Andrew, Fiona, Helen, Mark and Tina

We see what they eat (dinner), their job (occupation), what they do in their free time (hobby) and what that do on Saturday and Sunday (the weekend).

For example, Andrew likes to drink beer, Tina like to do karate

What do they do ?

Name // dinner // occupation // hobby // weekend 

Andrewsteak and chips
spaghetti
brewerfootball & beersports & cinema DOESN’T like shopping
Fionatuna salad
soups
accountantreading
driving
visits family & shopping DOESN’T like sports
Helensushi
Korean BBQ
marketingyoga & keep fit
craft beer 
exercises & cinema DOESN’T like loud clubs
Markfish and chips
kebabs
civil servantcars and bikes
sports
fixing cars & drinking beer DOESN’T like loud clubs
Tinapasta
pizza
dentistkaraoke
clubs
shopping and meeting friends DOESN’T like beer or sport.
Couple watching a football game | Royalty free photo - 404574
Andrew likes to watch football but his girlfriend does not (doesn’t)
CMA - Lady accountant - (S) - YouTube
Fiona is an accountant
Dara eating sushi (Line play 053115) | 2ne1, South korean idol, Yg ...
Helen likes to eat sushi
Buy his bikes, bee-cause! - Los Angeles Times
Mark likes to ride a bicycle
Taekwondo Girl - Bing Images | Martial arts girl, Taekwondo girl ...
Tina likes to do karate

Make sentences

Use so does with positives, neither does with negatives.

EXAMPLE:

Mark eats chips and so does Andrew. 

Helen doesn’t drink beer neither does Tina.

Tina likes shopping …

Mark doesn’t like loud clubs …

Make questions

EXAMPLE:

Who likes beer ? Who eats Italian food (pizza, pasta, spaghetti) ?

Beginners’ English: Short dialogues.

5th June 2020

BEGINNERS Conversations

Two women on lunch break meet in urban park - Stock Video Footage ...

Two women meet in the city centre

Anna Excuse me, do you speak English ? 

Jane Yes, I speak a little English. 

Anna Sorry, I don’t speak Vietnamese (or Arabic, Spanish, etc)

Jane Are you English ?

Anna No, I am American. Nice to meet you.

Jane Nice to meet you too.

Pronunciation of the schwa / ə/ sound: mother / teacher / banker / banana

Conversation

11 Things You Should Know About Vietnamese Culture

Two women meet at a street restaurant

Lyn Do you understand English ? 

Mia Sorry, I don’t understand English. 

Lyn I understand a little Vietnamese. 

Mia What’s your job ?

Lyn I’m a teacher. What’s your job ? 

Mia I’m a doctor

[Culture note – in English, we always say ‘please’, ‘thank you’ & ‘sorry’]