Present Perfect exercises

6th September 2020

Resultado de imagen de present perfect tense verbs | Perfect tense, Present  perfect, Activities for teens

A compilation of exercises to practise using the present perfect form

Present perfect

Subject + have/ has + past participle [verb 3]

She has been to New York / They have visited London

NEGATIVE:

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gatsby - todo um novo mundo | Libri, Leggende

I haven’t read The Great Gatsby

have not seen My Sassy Girl

QUESTION:

Have you read Romeo and Juliet?

[Have / has + subject + verb 3 … ?]

Change the verb into the correct form:

  1. I (read) your book several times. I have read your book several times
    2. She has (wear) that skirt many times. [worn /wear / wore]
    3. My family (visit) Brazil a few times.
    4. I (eat) already.
    5. Marta (finish) her homework.
    6. You (break) the glass again.
    7. They (pay) for everything.
    8. It (never snow) like that.
    9. I (meet) Anna once.
    10. We (see) him before.

Change simple past into present perfect 

Example – I started a band = I’ve started a band / I have started a band

1 I went to Ha Noi // 2 We explored a cave // 3 I ate cake // 4 We saw a famous building // 5 She buys many dresses and visited many friends

Correct the mistakes

I have go to Ha Noi

She have seen the London Eye

We have eat English food

Has you going to Thailand ?

He not has bought iPhone X

Extra activities on this link:

https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/07/04/adult-speaking-class-level-2-present-perfect-exercises/

Adult Speaking Class, Level 1: How often do you … ?

16th August 2020

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Asian ladies ALWAYS take selfies … true ?

Adverbs of frequency

0% / 20% / 50% / 70 – 90% / 100 %

never / hardly ever / sometimes / often or usually /always

Ask each other: How often do you

drink coffee / drink beer / drink champagne ?

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eat fast food / eat salad / eat western food ?

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play sports / go to the gym / go swimming ?

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take a taxi / catch a bus / ride an elephant

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Thay Paul with Thai friend 🙂

Time Expressions

every day / twice a week / at the moment / now / this week

EXAMPLE:

The students eats noddles and pork every day.

He is sleeping at the moment.

She goes to visit her family twice a week.

Now … Your turn

1 I am learning English … OR I learn English …

2 He plays tennis …

3 She goes to a restaurant …

4 We watch TV …

5 They are playing video games …

Video Games Rise in Popularity Among Older Adults

Adult Speaking Class, level 1: Where were you and what were you doing ?

16th August 2020

Past simple/ past continuous

Look at the house map – say where you were last night and what you were doing ?

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EXAMPLE:

Last night, I was on the porch watering my plants

Last night (time), I was (past tense) on the porch watering (verb + ing – past continuous) my plants.

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Watering plants on the porch

Last night, I was in the dining room, eating dinner

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I was Eating in the dining room with my family

NOTICE – ON the porch / ON the deck but IN the room

To help you, match the rooms with the activities:

kitchen / dining room / great room or living room / bedroom / laundry room / bathroom / deck

watching TV / washing clothes / sleeping / cooking / studying English / sunbathing / reading / online / ironing clothes / taking a shower

Extended exercise – say who was with you

Example: I was in the bedroom reading a story to my daughter

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Adult Speaking Class, level 2: Modal verbs that you ought to know.

25th July 2020

Modal verbs and when to use them

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History of the OED | Oxford English Dictionary

can / could / have to / may / must

ought to / should / will

Modal verbs are used for:

Permission // Possibility // Obligation

Request // Speculation // Suggestion

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Sounds confusing ? Don’t worry – English is meant to be USED, not just studied and so, without further ado, some examples:

Can I get a bus to Ben Thanh Market ?

Can I get a bus to Main Street from here ?

This means is it possible to get a bus from here ?

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Can I get a bus to Big Ben from here ?

Can you hit the lights, please ?

A request to turn on / off the lights.

Turn Off Unneeded Lights – Air Conditioning Appreciation Days -

We use can to ask if something is possible and to request help.

Who’s that ? It could be Peter. Speculation, a guess

You have to get over 60% or you will fail. Obligation

Oh, you must see the new Quentin Tarantino film. Suggestion

Will you help me with my tieng Viet ? May I go to the party ? Request

You musn’t use your phone when riding a motorbike. Permission

You ought to stop drinking so much coffee. Suggestion

You should all read English books. Suggestion

Exercises:

can // could // have to // may // must

ought to // should //will

[answers at end of exercise]

First, decide which of the six classes is needed (permission, request etc). The first two are indicated, after that, you’re on your own.

… I use my mobile phone in class ? Request

You … answer all three questions. Obligation

It’s too heavy; … you help me lift it ?

Don’t wait too long, he … not come.

… I buy an iPhone or a Samsung Galaxy ?

Apple and Samsung mediation to take place on May 21st and 22nd

May I use my mobile phone in class ?

You have to answer all three questions.

It’s too heavy; can you help me lift it ?

Don’t wait too long, he may not come.

Should I buy an iPhone or a Samsung Galaxy ?

Do all Quentin Tarantino's movies actually take place in the same ...

Past tense, past continuous: Various exercises

12th July 2020

Various exercises for you to practise grammar, both past simple and past continuous. Answer follow the photos.

Past Tense exercises

Past simple: most common way of talking about the past. 

Regular verbs just add –ed e.g. walk = walked / look = looked / play = played

Past continuous: was / were + verbing e.g. I was playing / We were looking

Irregular verbs not used in past continuous e.g. we were seeing a film OR we saw a film NOT we were sawing a film.

Present perfect– talk about an action that happened in the past

subj + have/has + verb3 (past participle).

Past perfect – talking about two actions, both in the past, one before the other

e.g. I had listened to the CD before I saw the band play live.

Subj + had + verb3

The verb ‘to be’

I am / I was // you are / you were // he, she, it is / was // they, we are / were

Past tense / Shakespeare exercise

Change these lines into the past:

1 In Act One, Romeo ….. (is) in love with _________

2 Benvolio ……… (try – past continuous) to stop the fight.

3 The Prince ………. (demand – past perfect) to see Capulet before seeing Montague.

4 Romeo, Mercutio & Benvolio ……. (are) in the street talking.

5 The two families …… …. (be, present continuous) been fighting for years.

6 Romeo ….. (ask) the Nurse who Juliet is.

7 Mercutio & Benvolio …… (do, not) know Romeo was in love with Juliet.

8 The famous ‘balcony’ scene … (take) place in Act 2.

9 The Friar ……. ……. (go, past perfect) out collecting flowers.

10 At the end of Act 2, Romeo and Juliet …… (are) married. 

Which is the best screen version of Romeo and Juliet? Don't look ...

ANSWERS

1) was (Rosaline) 2) was trying 3) had demanded 4) were 5) have been 6) asked 7) did not (didn’t) 8) took 9) had gone 10) were

Past tense exercise

Change the verb form – can be:

past simple (think about regular & irregular verbs)

past continuous (verb + ing)

present perfect (subject + have/has + verb3)

past perfect (subject + had + verb3)

It is …. a hot, Sai Gon night. The wind blow …….. up from the river, but the humidity drive ….. me crazy. Sweat pour ……… down my back. 

I were walk …………. by the Old Town, lanterns were light ……. and sway ….. in the breeze. I … visit …….. an old friend before I decide ………. to take this long, steamy walk. I …. live ……….. here over two years, but everyday, I am almost 

kill ……. by crazy motorbikes. I need …. .. a coffee and see …… a cafe over the road. As I were cross ……………….. the street, a motorbike race …….. towards me. If I ……. jump ……… aside, he wouldpresent perfect…. hit …. me. But that were …… his idea.

He turn ….. around and pull …… out a gun, aim …… and fire ……… . I ……. ……….(be) present perfect shot at more times than I care to remember, I know …….. the score; duck and run. I run …… .I ………did, (negative) have time to think. I can … think later – if I am still alive. I make …. it into the coffee shop, and were look ……. out the window across the street.

The shooter were dress …… all in black and keep …… his helmet on. He were walk …………. this way. Quickly, I look ……. around. Were there another exit ? Can …. I escape by a back door ? Yes ! I ……. be (past perfect) ……here…before. I remember ………. a fire exit on the first floor. I leap …… for the stairs, just as the shooter were about to open the door.

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Answers: was / blew / drove / poured // was walking / lit / swayed / visitid / decided / lived // killed / needed / saw / was crossing / raced / jumped / have hit / was // turned / pulled / aimed / fired / I have been shot at / knew / ran / didn’t / could / was / made / looked // was dressed / kept / was walking / looked / was / Could / had been / remembered / lept

Here are 7 verbs in the PRESENT. Choose the correct verb AND use it in the correct tense.

teach / live / go / see / drink / am / have 

Harry (1) …….. drinking tea yesterday, when he (2) ……. an idea. I haven’t (3) …….. my neighbours how to drink tea. I am sure they will be happy. They have not (4) …… to the UK yet. I have (5) …. in many cities in England. Now I am in Viet Nam. I have (6) …. many wonderful sights, but I have never (7) …… a cup of good, English tea.

Beautiful Young Woman Drinking Hot Tea With Nature Green ...

Answers: 1) was 2) had 3) taught 4) been 5) lived 6) seen 7) drunk

Put the present tense verbs into past continuous

EXAMPLE Linh drinks tea – Linh was drinking tea

1 Tina watches TV

2 Sam shouts, ‘Oh, no!’

3 My father plays football

4 Bella designs a beautiful dress

5 The cat sings karaoke all night long ! 

6 Paul listens to The Beatles

7 Anna buys an Apple.

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Answers: 1) was watching 2) was shouting 3) was playing 4) was designing 5) was singing 6) was listening 7) was buying

75 % of verbs are REGULAR – just add -ed to form past tense

visit visited // watch watched // talk talked // walk walked

BUT

Others are IRREGULAR – you just have to learn them !

Go – went // see – saw // is – was // sleep – slept // spend – spent

Put the verbs into the simple past:

  1. Last year I (go) …………to England on holiday.
  2. It (be) ……..fantastic.
  3. I (visit)…… lots of interesting places. I (be) ….. with two friends of mine .
  4. In the mornings we (walk)…… in the streets of London.
  5. In the evenings we (go) ….. to pubs.
  6. The weather (be) …… remarkably pleasant. (nice)
  7. We (watch) …… a great Korean film.
  8. But we (see) …… some beautiful rainbows.
  9. Where (spend / you) ……. your last holiday?
Take Care of My Cat

Answers: 1) went 2) was 3) visited & went 4) walked 5) went 6) was 7) watched 8) saw 9) did you spend ?

Grammar exercise simple past tense form of the verb.

1. I …………………………. him yesterday.

a) saw b) was seeing c) had seen

2. I ………………………. his letter yesterday.

a) received b) was receiving c) had received

3. She ……………………….. school last year.

a) will leave b) leave c) left

4. Last night I …………………………….. sleep well.

a) don’t b) didn’t c) hadn’t

5. He ……………………………. asleep while he was driving.

a) fell b) falls c) was falling

6. I ………………………… a new bicycle last week.

a) bought b) had bought c) have bought

7. We ………………………….. our breakfast half an hour ago.

a) finished b) have finished c) had finished

8. When I was in the US, I …………………………….. Chicago, Boston and California.

a) visited b) was visiting c) would visit

9. I …………………………….. an old classmate of mine at the library.

a) had seen b) was seeing c) saw

10. She ………………yesterday that she would not go.

a) says b) said c) had said

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Answers: 1) a 2) a 3) c 4) b 5) a 6) a 7) a 8) a 9) c 10) b

Put into simple past

Last year I (go)  went to England on holiday. 

  1. It (be)   fantastic.
  2. I (visit)   lots of interesting places. I (be)   with two friends of mine . 
  3. In the mornings we (walk)   in the streets of London. 
  4. In the evenings we (go)   to pubs. 
  5. They (hear)   strange music. 
  6. It (not / rain)   a lot. 
  7. But we (buy)   some beautiful clothes. 
  8. How much money (spend / you)  in the shops ?
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Answers: 1) was 2) visited & was 3) walked 4) went 5) heard 6) did not [didn’t] 7) bought 8) did you spend

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The verb changes form in the PAST tense. Regular verbs add -ed, but many verbs are irregular e.g.

walk = walked / jump = jumped push = pushed (regular verbs)

begin began // bring brought // find found // come came // do did //

drink drank // eat ate // get got // make made // speak spoke

A good list is here:

http://www.gingersoftware.com/content/grammar-rules/verbs/list-of-irregular-verbs/

Beginners’ English: Past tense exercises

7th July 2020

Grammar: verbs

Good list of 100 verbs in 3 forms at: https://www.linguasorb.com/english/verbs/most-common-verbs/

Learn English Online | British Council

Grammar – verb practice

Let’s start to use more verbs. Here’s the 15 most common:

infinite / present / past / past participle (verb 3)

1 to be am / was / been

are / were / been

2 to have have / had / had

3 to do do did done

4 to say say / said / said

5 to go go / went / gone

6 to get get / got / gotten

7 to make make / made / made

8 to know know /knew / known

9 to think think / thought / thought

10 to take take / took / taken

11 to see see / saw / seen

12 to come come / came / come

13 to want want / wanted / wanted

14 to use use / used / used

15 to find find / found / found

Past Tense Exercise

1. He (walk) to school yesterday.

He WALKED  to school yesterday.


2. They (do) their homework last night.

They ——-  their homework last night.


3. You (are) lazy last week.

You ——- lazy last week.


4. That woman (buy) a new book this morning.

That woman  ——– a new book this morning.


5. The janitor (clean) the blackboard yesterday.

The janitor  ——–  the blackboard yesterday.


6. My mother (cook) food yesterday.

My mother  ——– food yesterday.


7. This morning my teacher (teach) English.

This morning my teacher  ———-  English.


8. I (am) hungry yesterday.

I  ——- hungry yesterday.


9. The gardener (cut) the trees last month.

The gardener ———— the trees last month.


10. She (drink) milk this morning.

She  ——— milk this morning.


11. Last month the man (ride) a horse.

Last month the man ——–  a horse.


12. Sam (go) to Hong Kong last year.

Sam  ——- to Hong Kong last year.


13. The birds (fly) in the sky this morning.

The birds  ——— in the sky this morning.


14. I (know) Tom’s sister last year.

I  ——– Tom’s sister last year.


15. The joiner (make) tables and chairs yesterday.

The joiner  —— tables and chairs yesterday.


16. The farmer (grow) rice last year.

The farmer ——–  rice last year.


17. Two weeks ago the boy (has) a new bicycle.

Two weeks ago the boy  ——- a new bicycle.


18. He (feel) happy yesterday.

He  ——- happy yesterday.


19. We (work) hard last week.

We  ——– hard last week.


20. The students (meet) in the hall last week.

The students  ——– in the hall last week.
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She drank milk

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He rode a horse and played guitar
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They went to Hong Kong

NOW make short sentences or stories from these exercises.

A. Complete the sentences, put the verb into the correct form, positive or negative. (simple past tense) 

1. It was warm, so I  off my coat. (take)

2. The film wasn’t very good. I  it very much. (enjoy)

3. I knew Sarah was very busy, so I  her. (disturb)

4. I was very tired, so I  to bed early. (go)

5. The bed was very uncomfortable. I  very well. (sleep)

6. Sue wasn’t hungry, so she  anything. (eat)

7. We went to Kate’s house but she  at home. (be)

8. It was a funny situation but nobody  (laugh)

9. The window was open and a bird  into the room. (fly)

10. The hotel wasn’t very expensive. It  very much. (cost)

11. I was in a hurry, so I  time to phone you. (have)

12. It was hard work carrying the bags. They  very heavy. (be)

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In this film, many birds flew into a room



B. Complete the exercise with the verbs inside the box. (simple past tense)

buycatchcostdrink
fallhurtsellspend
teachthrowwinwrite

1. Mozart  more than 600 pieces of music. Mozart WROTE more than 600 pieces of music

  1. ‘How did you learn to drive?’ ‘My father ——- me.’ 

    3. We couldn’t afford to keep our car, so we  ——– it. 

    4. I was very thirsty. I  the ——– water very quickly.

    5. Paul and I played tennis yesterday. He’s much better than me, so he ——–

     easily. 

    6. Don ——– down the stairs this morning and  his leg.

    7. Jim  ——– the ball to Sue, who ——–  it.

    8. Ann ——–  a lot of money yesterday. She  ——– a dress. It   ——– 100.

Past Tense

What did you do last night ?

Last night, I listened to music and played computer games.

Regular verbs add -ed:

Verb+ed
For example:
want+ed→ wanted
work+ed→ worked
Verb, ending in –e+d
For example:
dance+d→ danced
live+d→ lived
Verbs, ending in –y: y → i + ed
(* There are exceptions (for example played) )
For example:
cry→ cried
try→ tried
One vowel verb: double the consonant
For example:
stop → stopped
blog → blogged

Good verb list here: https://www.linguasorb.com/english/verbs/most-common-verbs/

Black Young Man Listening Music and Dancing by Stockland on Envato ...
Last night he listened to music and played computer games

irregular verbs – no rules.

Present – Past / Present – Past / Present – Past

I am – I was / begin – began / have – had

eat – ate / go – went / drive – drove

tell – told / hear – heard / catch – caught

buy – bought / write- wrote / see – saw

Listening: How many past tense verbs ?

Yesterday, I went to visit my friend. We played badminton then walked in the park.

After, we ate lunch and drank beer. Later, I bought coffee and wrote some emails.

Corrections: Write in the past tense

I (am) born in London and (arrive) in Viet Nam in 2015. I (work) as teacher in District 1 and 3 but I (want) to work near my home. Last week, my friend (have) a party. She (dance) all night and I (hear) her singing. In the morning, she (catch) a plane and (go) to Thailand.

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Welcome to Thailand

Beginners’ English: The passed is past – pronunciation guide

7th July 2020

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A quick blog to help with pronunciation.

In English, verb can be regular or irregular.

Regular verbs add -ed or -d in the past tense.

EXAMPLE:

I walk to work // I WALKED to work

I play guitar // I PLAYED guitar

She smiles on TV / She SMILED on TV

They dance in T-ara // They DANCED in T-ara

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-ed past tense verbs pronunciation

Words have 3 end sounds:

‘t’

‘d

‘id’

If the word ends with: 

ch / f / k / p / s / sh / thi – The sound is ‘t’ look = ‘lookt’

t /or / d/ – The sound is ‘id’ visit – ‘visitid’

Other sounds are ‘d’ bang = ‘bangd’

What is the correct pronunciation for these regular verbs ?

Look = Looked / laugh = laughed / end = 

beg = / visit = kiss = 

brush = / breath = love =

Read these sentences:

He cleared up the mess / He rolled up the newspaper / I have visited India

No Homework ! That sounded good / Teacher shouted, ‘No way !’

We all worked hard today / Tom talked so much / 

The students played many games and laughed.

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They have visited India

Adult Speaking Class, Level 2: Present perfect exercises

4th July 2020

Fourth of July Celebration | Chesterfield County, VA

present perfect

Subject + have/ has + past participle [verb 3]

She has been to New York

Asian girl in Brooklyn, New York,US | Free backgrounds

They have visited London

What is the biggest draw to visit England for non-brits? - Quora

They have seen that film so many times but have never understood it.

Mulholland Drive (2001), dir. David Lynch – musings on films

NEGATIVE:

I have not read My Sassy Girl 

I haven’t read The Great Gatsby

Question:

Have you read On The Road ?

[Have / has + subject + verb 3 … ?]

On the Road by Jack Kerouac
  • To talk about something in the past but not when it happened

He has looked at the report YES

He has looked at the report last week NO He looked at the report last week

  • Can use with ‘for’ and ‘since’

I have lived in Los Angeles (LA) since 2010

I have lived in Chicago for seven years

Change the verb into the correct form:

  1. I (read) your book several times. I have read your book several times
    2. She has (wear) that skirt many times. [worn /wear / wore]
    3. My family (visit) Brazil a few times.
    4. I (eat) already.
    5. Marta (finish) her homework.
    6. You (break) the glass again.
    7. They (pay) for everything.
    8. It (never snow) like that.
    9. I (meet) Anna once.
    10. We (see) him before.
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Snow in New England, USA
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Dialogue

Hello, how’s it going ? Long time no see.

Yes, I’ve been in Texas 

Amazing! I want to go. I’ve never been there.

Really ? You must go, the food is great.

I’ve heard the people are incredibly nice and friendly.

And they just love a barbecue. I’ve never eaten so much in my life !

English school in Seattle | Kaplan International
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Have you been trying to call me ? I was in Seattle.

What were you doing there ?

I was working. I had an interview for a new company.

I’ve also been on the lookout for a new job. My job is so tedious !

Mine too. Same thing, day in, day out. But … it’s a job. Oh, Tom has been fired.

No ! Why ? I’ve known him for a long time.

He hasn’t been pulling his weight. He’s been incredibly lazy !

Lazy Office Worker Playing Mobile Game With Smartphone During ...
Tom hasn’t been doing his work
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Cambridge & Boston | Harvard

Have you heard about John Jones ?

Yes ! He’s been transferred to Boston. He’s gotten a promotion.

I knew he’d do well. He’s a bright spark. I’ve seen Boston. I visited my friends.

I know Boston very well. I went to Harvard.

To study ?

No, to visit hahahahaha.

LOOK FOR:

Past simple 

Past continuous

Present perfect

Idioms and expressions

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Beginners’ English: I was reading your blog – Past continuous

2nd July 2020

Past Continuous

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Talking, laughing, dancing and drinking

Subject + was / were + verb ing

I was reading a book

You were taking a rest

At the party, we were singing, playing music, eating, drinking, talking and laughing.

USES:

Something was happening in the past

When I came to class, teacher was playing music.

[The teacher was ALREADY playing]

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Compare with Past Simple:

When I got to class, teacher played music

[Teacher started playing AFTER I arrived]

Something was happening in the past:

Last night, I was reading the news.

Something that happens all the time OR a long time ago:

They are always shouting at each other [happens all the time].

A Wife Caught Her Husband Boarding a Plane with His Mistress

When he was young, he was always playing piano [a long time ago].

The Piano Boy: This 10-year-old's playing skills will shock you ...

Practice:

When I phoned my friends, they (play)———-Monopoly.

When I phoned my friends, they were playing Monopoly.

  1. Yesterday at six I (prepare)————–dinner.
  2. The kids (play)——in the garden when it suddenly began to rain.
  3. I (practice)———–the guitar when he came home.
  4. We (not / cycle)———all day.
  5. While Alan (work)——–in his room, his friends (swim) ——-in the pool.
  6. I tried to tell them the truth but they (not / listen )————-.
  7. What (you / do)———–yesterday?
  8. Most of the time we (sit)——–in the park.
  9. I (listen)———to the radio while my sister (watch)————-TV.
  10. When I arrived, they (play)————–cards.
  11. We (study)———English yesterday at 4:00 pm .

Beginners’ English: ‘Have to’ or ‘must’ ?

1st July 2020

Two Asian College Girls Doing Stock Footage Video (100% Royalty ...

‘must’ or ‘have to’

‘have’ is a main verb, ‘must’ is a modal auxiliary verb

have can be followed by to + verb, and can be used in different tenses 

e.g. I have to go home

He has to do his homework

I had to write two reports (past tense)

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We have to wear a face mask

‘must’ is an auxiliary verb so:

is followed by a main verb

is never used with ‘to’

I must exercise NOT I must to exercise

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They must keep fit, they must exercise

‘have to’

an obligation made by someone else

‘must’

an obligation made by yourself

I have to get a visa to enter China OR not allowed into China

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I must do more exercise [This is MY choice, not forced.]

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I must do more exercise … I must do A LOT more exercise. I must stop eating pizza and pasta !

‘have to’

Sub + have to + infinite

POSITIVE: She has to try harder

NEGATIVE: He does not have to work tomorrow

QUESTION: Do you have to be so noisy ?

‘must’

Sub + must + base verb

I must sleep soon

You must go shopping

He must be nicer to his sister

Negative: Students must not (mustn’t) cheat in class

Question: Must we visit your family ?

Exercises: (answers at end of blog)

1. Yesterday I ________ finish my geography project.

 must
 mustn’t
 had to

2. She will ________ wait in line like everyone else.

 must
 have to
 has to

3. All employees ________ on time for work.

 must be
 mustn’t
 have to

4. We ________ forget to take the chicken out of the freezer.

 have to not
 must
 mustn’t

5. If you are under 13 you _____ to get your parents’ permission.

 have
 must
 musn’t

6. Your daughter may ________ try on a few different sizes.

 have to
 had to
 must

7. You _____ get here as soon as you can.

 must
 mustn’t
 have to

8. Do you _____ work next weekend?

 have to
 must
 mustn’t

9. Bicyclists _____ remember to signal when they turn.

 mustn’t
 must
 has to

10. Angela, you _____ leave your clothes all over the floor like this.

 mustn’t
 must
 have to

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ANSWERS

1 had to // 2 had to // 3 must be // 4 mustn’t // 5 have // 6 have to // 7 must // 8 have to // 9 must // mustn’t //