Young learners, level 6: Travel Journal Project

10th December 2020

Everybody Up 6, Unit 2 project

Make Your Own Travel Diary : 8 Steps (with Pictures) - Instructables

Class will be arranged in four small groups and they will be assigned a city. The students have an hour to collect information, produce a short journal (with maps, photos, illustrations etc) and present to the class.

The destinations are:

London, Barcelona, Seoul & Rio de Janeiro

I shall provide some photo printouts for their covers.

The journal must include:

When to go // an itinerary // a famous museum or building // how the students got there

Virtual itineraries – a digital day out in London - Lonely Planet

London: best time to go is in Spring // British Museum is free -Open daily 10.00 am – 5.00 pm // Take the Tube (subway) to Holborn // Hamleys Toy Shop – Open 11.00 – 5.00 // Take the 25 bus and walk down Regent Street.

6 Of The Top Places To Take Kids In London | London Planner Magazine

Barcelona: Best time is May – June // Gaudi Church (Sagrada Familia) Open 9.00 – 7.00 pm // Take Metro Line 2 (subway) // Have a picnic in Gaudi park (Parc Güell) – Open 9.30 – 7.00 pm) -get there by taxi // At night walk along the famous street Las Ramblas and walk around the old town centre

A guide to La Rambla, Barcelona | Insight Guides Blog

Seoul: Best time is summer // Seoul Tower – take bus number 2 – Open 10.00 – 11.00 pm // Traditional village – take a taxi. // Walk around, visit small museums and try traditional food // At night, walk along city creek and try Korean street food.

Cheonggyecheon Stream in central Seoul

Rio de Janeiro: best time is February, for the Festival // Walk there from your hotel // Visit the Christ statue – take a taxi but go early morning. // Go to the beach at Ipanema – take the Metro Rio (Subway) // Try amazing Brazilian food like crazy beef or foot bug ! //

Some Brazilian food for you know when you visit us. - 9GAG

Rio de Janeiro Carnival 2021 Dates - Feb 12 thru Feb 20, 2021
Festival in Rio !

NOW … have fun

Subject Index: Video Clips used in ESL Classes

4th December 2020

Video Clips

ABC song // Kindergarten Safari 1 // 10 March 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/03/09/surfin-safari-level-1-what-is-it/

ABC (Richard Scary) // Kindergarten Safari 1 // 2nd March 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/03/02/kindergartensurfin-safari-level-1/

Airport (passport control) // Adult Speaking Class, level 3: // sun, surf, sand // 18th May 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/05/18/adult-speaking-class-level-3-usa-sun-surf-sand/

Ancient Egyptian Gods // Young Learners, Level 6 // 12th May 2022: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2022/05/12/young-learners-ancient-egyptian-gods/

Animal videos and activities: a compilation // Young Learners // 25th January 2022: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2022/01/25/young-learners-animal-magic/

Archimedes screw pump: theory & practice // Adult Professionals. Mechanics. Theme: Archimedes // 26th February 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/02/26/adult-professionals-mechanics-theme-archimedes/

Architecture world’s tallest buildings // Adult Speaking Class Level 2 // 9th April 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/04/09/adult-speaking-class-level-2-giving-opinions-architecture/

Australian hero – Aussie slang // IELTS 5-6.5 // 21st August 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/10/28/past-simple-and-past-continuous/

John Bercow ‘Order !’ // Young Learners 1 // 13th April 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/04/09/young-learners-its-all-happening-at-the-zoo/

Black Friday // Adult Speaking Class, Level 2: shopping expressions // 14th December 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/12/14/shopping-vocabulary-speaking-exercises-fixed-prices-fixed-expressions/

Blind Date TV dating show // Adult Speaking Class. Theme: Love & marriage // 11th January 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/01/11/adult-speaking-class-theme-traffic/

Boy dances ballet in Nigeria // Young Learners, Level 4 // 23rd December 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2021/12/23/young-learners-level-4-what-can-you-do/

Boy wiggles ears // Adult Class, Level 3 // 12th December 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/12/11/adult-class-level-3-can-the-can/

Boy wiggles ears // Young Learners, Level 4 // 23rd December 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2021/12/23/young-learners-level-4-what-can-you-do/

Adrian Brody as Dali (Woody Allen) // Young Learners 4 // 26th October 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/10/24/young-learners-level-4-daaaaaaaallliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii/

George W. Bush leaves room // Young Teens // 31st January 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/01/31/young-teens-unesco-sites/

Chicago, Willis Tower // Adult professionals. Mechanics, Part 3 // 7th Feb 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/02/07/adult-professionals-mechanics-part-3/

Chimpanzee tea-party (1955) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OPD_m2laITc

Chinese Magic Fail: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/01/31/young-teens-unesco-sites/

Christmas UK // Adult Speaking Class, Level 2 // 20th December 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/12/20/adult-speaking-class-level-2/

Concorde // Adult professionals. Mechanics, Part 3 // 7th Feb 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/02/07/adult-professionals-mechanics-part-3/

Corona Virus Government video // IELTS 4 – 5 // Implementing precautions // 25th March 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/03/25/ielts-4-5-mindset-implementing-precautions/

Countries (festivals) // (Spain, UK, Niger, Mexico, Thailand) // Young Learners, Level 6 // 3rd September 2022: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2022/09/03/young-learners-level-6-its-festival-time/

Benedict Cumberbatch (voices and accents) // Listening: real-life clips //20th April 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/04/20/listening-real-world-clips/

Customer complaints // Adult Speaking Class, Level 2 Part 2 // 6th January 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/01/06/adult-speaking-class-level-2-part-2/

Dickens ‘Christmas Carol’ // Adult Speaking Class, Level 3 // 17th January 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/01/17/adult-speaking-class-level-3/

Robert Downey Jr awkward interview // Adult Class, Level 3 // 26th November 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/11/26/adult-class-level-3-a-diva-moi/

Dynamo magic // Adult Class, Level 3 // 12th December 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/12/11/adult-class-level-3-can-the-can/

Dynamo magic // Young Learners, Level 4 // 23rd December 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2021/12/23/young-learners-level-4-what-can-you-do/

Easter traditions // Adult Speaking Class, Level 2 // 1st January 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/01/01/adult-speaking-class-level-2-easter/

Ancient Egypt (for children) // Young Learners 2 // 1st June 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/05/31/young-learners-level-2-what-a-wonderful-world/

Engineering fails // Adult Professionals / Mechanics Part 2 // 23rd January 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/01/23/adult-professionals-mechanics-part-2/

Entropy // Adult professionals. Mechanics, Part 3 // 7th Feb 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/02/07/adult-professionals-mechanics-part-3/

Eyewitnesses // Adult Speaking Class, Level 3. Theme: Crime & Punishment / 1st February 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/02/01/adult-speaking-class-level-3-theme-crime-and-punishment/

Four Weddings bad vicar speech // Adult Speaking Class. Theme: Love & marriage Part 2: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/01/12/adult-speaking-class-theme-love-marriage-part-2/

Friction // Adult professionals. Mechanics, Part 3 // 7th Feb 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/02/07/adult-professionals-mechanics-part-3/

Funny animals // Young Learners 1 // 26th May 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/05/24/young-learners-level-1-i-spy-with-my-little-eye/

Funny Animals, pandas & a Jackass // Some Light Relief // 15th January 2022: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2022/01/15/some-light-relief/

Germany: Top Attractions // Adult Speaking Class, Level 3. Theme: Germany // 26th Feb 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/02/26/adult-speaking-class-level-3-theme-germany/

Germany: Top Ten Facts // Adult Speaking Class, Level 3. Theme: Germany // 26th Feb 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/02/26/adult-speaking-class-level-3-theme-germany/

Germany: Krautrock // Adult Speaking Class, Level 3. Theme: Germany // 26th February 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/02/26/adult-speaking-class-level-3-theme-germany/

Greek dancing // Young Learners 5 // 6th October 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/10/04/young-learners-level-5-welcome-to-athens/

How couples meet // Adult Speaking Class. Theme: Love & marriage: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/01/11/adult-speaking-class-theme-traffic/

Inbetweeners (Jay on motorbike) // Adult Class, Level 3 // 19th December 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/12/15/adult-class-level-3-sentence-building/

Indian lady teaches vocabulary // Adult Class, Level 3 // 11th December 2021: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2021/12/11/two-birds-with-one-stone-listening-and-vocabulary/

Internal combustion engine // Adult Professionals / Mechanics Part 2 // 23rd January 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/01/23/adult-professionals-mechanics-part-2/

Introductions – what’s your name // Beginners’ English, Part 2 // January 9th 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/01/09/beginners-english-part-2/

Introductions // Introductions and small talk // Adult Speaking Class, Level 2 // 29th January 2022: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2022/01/29/adult-speaking-class-level-2-introducing-yourself-and-small-talk/

iPhone in a vacuum // Young Learners 4 // 16th November 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/11/15/young-learners-level-4-can-you-hear-me-major-tom-2/

iPhone in a vacuum // Young Learners, Level 4 // 30th January 2022: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2022/01/30/young-learners-level-4-fun-facts-about-space/

Karaoke (noise pollution) // Adult Speaking Class, level 2 // 20th December 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/12/20/adult-speaking-class-level-2/

Senri Kawaguchi // Adult Class, Level 3 // 12th December 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/12/11/adult-class-level-3-can-the-can/

Buster Keaton GIF // Young Learners, Level 5 // 6th June 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/06/05/young-learners-level-5-sounds-of-the-rain-forest/

Kids guide to HCMC // Young Learners 4 // 23rd November 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/11/21/young-learners-level-4-were-all-going-on-a-summer-holiday/

Kids’ Guide to HCMC & London // Young Learners // 5th February 2022: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2022/02/05/young-learners-kids-guide-to-listening-and-comprehension-exercises/

Kids’ parade USA // Young Learners 4 // 1st May 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/05/01/young-learners-level-4-be-creative/

Rachel Kim – Koreans speaking English // Adult Class Level 3 // 31st March 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/03/31/adult-class-level-3-storytelling-part-3/

Japan // IELTS listening practice // 18th October 2021: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2021/10/18/ielts-focus-on-japan/

Japan: 3 days in Tokyo // Adult Speaking Class, Level 2, Part 6, 25th January 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/01/25/adult-speaking-class-level-2-part-6-2/

Japan: 7 cool things // Adult Speaking Class, Level 2, Part 6, 25th January 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/01/25/adult-speaking-class-level-2-part-6-2/

Japan: 10 facts // Adult Speaking Class, Level 2, Part 6, 25th January 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/01/25/adult-speaking-class-level-2-part-6-2/

Japan: Shinkanshen (Bullet Train) // Adult professionals. Mechanics, Part 3 // 7th Feb 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/02/07/adult-professionals-mechanics-part-3/

Joker (H. Ledger GIF) // Young Teens // 27th February 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/02/27/young-teens-course-review/

Love and Marriage // compilation of videos // 27th January 2022: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2022/01/27/adult-speaking-class-level-3-love-and-marriage-a-video-compilation/

David Letterman // Young Learners 4 // 30th May 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/05/30/young-learners-level-4-what-does-the-future-hold-and-a-repeat-of-the-late-show/

London

Kids guide to London // Young Learners 5 // 25th August 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/08/20/young-learners-level-5-feelings-nothing-more-than-feelings/

London cost of living // Adult Speaking Class, Level 3. Theme: London 3rd March 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/03/03/adult-speaking-class-level-3-theme-london/

London street trader // IELTS 5-6.5 // 28th August 2019

London Top 10 Attractions // Teenagers // 16th December 2018 /// // Adult Speaking Class, Level 3. Theme: London 3rd March 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/03/03/adult-speaking-class-level-3-theme-london/

London getting around (Oyster Card) // Adult Speaking Class, Level 3. Theme: London 3rd March 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/03/03/adult-speaking-class-level-3-theme-london/

London How to use the Tube // Young Learners, Level 6 // 5th December 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/12/05/young-learners-level-6-london-screen-test/

London Tube (busy) // KG Safari 1 // 2nd March 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/03/02/kindergartensurfin-safari-level-1/

London Tube (rush hour) // Adult Speaking Class. Theme – Traffic:

London Tube guide // Adult Speaking Class. Theme – Traffic:

McDonalds ordering fast food // Adult Speaking Class, level 2

Making a video // Adult Speaking Class, level 2

Milk box fail // Adult Class, Level 3 // 18th March 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/03/18/adult-class-level-3-sharks-and-dragons/

Music – 6-year old Chinese Girl, and 8-year old Japanese drummer // 15th January 2022: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2022/01/15/some-light-relief/

New Zealand Haka // Young Learners 5 // 27th October 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/10/26/young-learners-level-5-around-the-world-in-eighty-minutes/

Paris love-locks // // Adult Speaking Class, Level 2: Adverbs & expressions // 26th June 2020

Peter O’Toole // A legend // Adult Speaking Class, Level 3 // 24th December 2021: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2021/12/24/peter-otoole-a-legend/

Peter O’Toole // Young Teens // 17th January 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/01/17/young-teens-a-funny-thing-happened-to-me/

Phrasal verbs (family) // Adult Speaking Class. Theme: Love & marriage Part 3

Poland beer review // Adult Speaking Class, level 3 // 27th December 2021: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2021/12/27/poland-history-culture-and-beer/

Poland tourist guide // Adult Speaking Class, level 3 // 27th December 2021: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2021/12/27/poland-history-culture-and-beer/

Politicians attacked (John Prescott) // Adult Speaking Class, Level 3 // 17th January 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/01/17/adult-speaking-class-level-3/

Pulp Fiction coffee shop // Adult Speaking Class, level 2 // 20th December 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/12/20/adult-speaking-class-level-2/

Queen Elizabeth II (Christmas 2011) // Listening: real-life clips //20th April 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/04/20/listening-real-world-clips/

Queen Elizabeth II (Christmas 1985) // Adult Speaking Class, level 2 // 15th May 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/05/15/adult-speaking-class-level-2-conversation-practice/

Queen Elizabeth II (corona address) // Listening Exercises, Corona Special // 6th April 2020

Rain forest // Young Learners, Level 5 // 6th June 2020

Richard III // Listening: real-life clips //20th April 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/04/20/listening-real-world-clips/

Robin Hood // Young Teens // 13th May 2022: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2022/05/13/young-teens-three-british-legends/

Romeo and Juliet // Adult Speaking Class, level 3 // 14th January 2022: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2022/01/14/famous-shakespeare-quotes/

Jerry Seinfeld GIF //Adult Speaking Class, Level 2: What type of person ? // 19th June 2020

Social Network // IELTS 5-6.5 // 4th September 2019

Spain, Pamplona running with the bulls // Young Learners, Level 6 // 5th December 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/12/05/young-learners-level-6-london-screen-test/

Ringo Starr being knighted // Adult Class, Level 1 // 5th March 2019

Snow // Beginners’ English, Part 2

Sir Kier Starmer (Labour leader, UK) // Listening Exercises, Corona Special // 6th April 2020

Supersize Me – junk food // Adult Speaking Class, level 2 // 20th December 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/12/20/adult-speaking-class-level-2/

Taiwan (four videos – WHO dodge, Tsai Ing-wen) // Taiwan: Listening Extra 12th April 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/04/12/taiwan-listening-special/

Quentin Tarantino awkward interview // Adult C, L 3 // 26th November 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/11/26/adult-class-level-3-a-diva-moi/

Tarantino on Chungking Express // 16th April 2019 /// IELTS // 4th March 2019

Nikola Tesla // Adult professionals. Mechanics, Part 3 // 7th Feb 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/02/07/adult-professionals-mechanics-part-3/

Theseus & the Minotaur (Lego) // Young Learners 5 // 6th October 2019 https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/10/04/young-learners-level-5-welcome-to-athens/

Top Gear: Vietnamese driving school // Adult Class, Level 3 // 7th December 2021: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2021/12/07/traffic-talking-points/

Top Gear: Driving an old car // Adult Professionals / Mechanics Part 2 // 23rd January 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/01/23/adult-professionals-mechanics-part-2/

Top Gear Vietnam // Top Gear Special: What can go wrong ? // 28th April 2020

Train, high-speed in China // Adult pros // Adult mechanics: What can go wrong ?

Train song // KG Safari 1 // 2nd March 2019

President Trump news (Viet subs) // Adult Speaking Class, Level 3 // 11th March 2020

Tuareg people // Adult Speaking Class, level 3. Theme: Travel // 11th February 2020

Twin Peaks ‘Damn fine coffee’: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/05/30/adult-class-level-3-keep-on-rockin-in-the-free-world/

Universeum, Sweden // Young Learners 3 // 14th December 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/12/13/young-learners-level-3-final-review/

USA // Adult Speaking Class, level 3: San Francisco, Boston, Chicago // 18th May 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/05/18/adult-speaking-class-level-3-lets-go-to-san-francisco-or-boston-or-chicago/

Vietnam

Vietnam on video Part 1 (3 clips: beer / weird culture / superstitions // Part 1 // 23rd October 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/10/23/vietnam-on-video-part-1/

Vietnam on Video Part 2 (Ha Noi & SG, Top Gear driving school, Floyd on pho) // 26th October 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/10/26/vietnam-on-video-part-2/

Vietnam – kids’ Guide to Sai Gon // Young Learners, Level 2 // 8th November 2022: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2022/11/08/young-learners-levels-1-2-what-to-do-in-sai-gon/

Angry Vietnamese woman // Adult Class, Level 3: Generally speaking // 28th April 2020

Cooking Vietnamese food // Keith Floyd // Vietnamese Party Food // 19th May 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/05/19/vietnamese-party-food/

Vietnam – country in transition // IELTS // 30th July 2019

Vietnamese culture (weird) // Adult Speaking Class, level 2, Part 6 24th January 2020

Vietnam (first impressions) // Teenagers // 12th January 2019

Vietnam – 5 weird things // Adult Speaking Class, level 2 // 28th December 2020: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/12/28/love-and-marriage-the-best-bits/

Vietnam – 5 weird things Vietnamese people do // Adult Speaking Class, Level 2 // 20th December 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/12/20/adult-speaking-class-level-2/

Vietnam – 7 fun facts // Beginners’ English

Vietnamese beer review (Sai Gon Red) // IELTS // 21st January 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/01/21/ielts-i-love-it-i-hate-it-its-not-my-cup-of-tea-its-ok/

Vietnamese beer review (Sai Gon Red) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rKr6Cj-Xr9g&list=LLfquznE0joCgmA3v1PIQ0CQ&index=8&t=1s

Vietnam (safety in Sai Gon) // Teenagers // 20th January 2019 /// Adult C, L 3 // 5th September 2019

Vietnamese cop on speeding bus // Adult Class, Level 3 // 7th December 2021: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2021/12/07/traffic-talking-points/

Vietnam (unexpected things vlog) // IELTS 5-6.5 // 14th August 2019

Vietnamese urban myths // Adult Speaking Class, level 2, Part 6 24th January 2020

Christoph Waltz ‘Inglorious’ // Adult Class, Level 1 // 26th February 2019

Wedding fails // Adult Speaking Class. Theme: Love & marriage

Wedding language // Adult Speaking Class. Theme: Love & marriage Part 2

Wedding parties (Jewish & Mexican) // Adult Class. Theme: Love & marriage Part 2

Arsene Wenger zipper fail // Beginners’ English, Part 2

What happened next ? (video clips) // Young Teens // 31st January 2019

When the band comes marching // Young Learners 1 // 26th May 2019

Mark Wiens eats VN breakfast // Young Learners 2 // 25th August 2019

Mark Wiens Kolkata, India // IELTS: Hello, India // 24th January 2020

(// Young Learners 4 // 9th November 2019) // Adult Class, Level 3 // 8th October 2019

Woman kicked out of Starbucks // Adult Class, Level 3 //18th March 2019: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2019/03/18/adult-class-level-3-sharks-and-dragons/

Workplace fails // Adult Speaking Class, Level 3. Theme: Work-place problems // 5th February 2020

Young Learners, Level 6: London itinerary

26th November 2020

What could you do in London in two full days, a morning and an evening ?

Choose what to do and how much it will cost ?

How will you get there ?

Plan an itinerary

You are at your hotel and ready for sightseeing on Tuesday at 12.30pm

What will you do in the afternoon ?

You have Wednesday and Thursday free.

You have free time on Friday morning.

What will you do, how much will you spend ?

Heart at London Zoo: We go behind the scenes to see the animals and their  keepers... - Heart

LONDON ZOO

Open: 10.00am – 4.00 pm daily

Price:  £ 26 [800 000 VND]

Tube Station (subway):  £2.40 [74 000 VND] 

London Eye - Wikipedia

LONDON EYE

Open: 10.00 am – 6.00 pm (winter) daily

Price: £27.00 [838 000 VND]

Ferry stop £36.50 with river tour [1 130 000 VND]

Dippy the Dinosaur Leaves the Natural History Museum | artnet News

NATIONAL HISTORY MUSEUM

Open: 10.00 am – 6.00 pm daily

Price: free

Catch a taxi £15.00 [465 000 VND]

The 8 job vacancies at Hampton Court Palace - how to get them and how much  they pay - MyLondon

HAMPTON COURT PALACE

Open: 10.00 am – 4.30 pm

Price: £24.50 [760 000 VND]

Take a train £7.60 [235 000 VND]

Hamleys opens its second store in KolkataIBG News | IBG News

HAMLEYS TOY SHOP

Open 11.00 am – 8.00 pm

Most expensive toy is a dollhouse Price £250 [7 756 000 VND]

Ride the bus £1.50 [46 500 VND]

And, for food in London ?

Fish and chips – Wikipedia tiếng Việt
fish and chips
McDonald's launches FOUR new menu items today including naan burgers and  salted caramel Galaxy McFlurries
McDonalds
Món Ngon Việt Hackney - Home - London, United Kingdom - Menu, Prices,  Restaurant Reviews | Facebook
Vietnamese food
Is afternoon tea at The Ritz just for tourists? We find out - Time Out  London
tea and cakes at the Ritz Hotel
We all love a 99 flake but where do they get their name from? - MyLondon

Love and Chaos Part 1(D) Marina 1

13th November 2020

Part One. London. Spring 1993

“So what’s wrong with you ?”

Richard put down his glass, took a deep sigh and said,

“Boyfriend trouble.”

Chris had known him long enough to know that this wasn’t some belated confession, but rather the preamble to a skit that Richard had been preparing the whole day, if not longer. Without prompting, Richard delivered the tagline;

“All the girls I like have got boyfriends.”

Chris grabbed his drink, thus avoiding the cue to make a cymbal-crash. While he appreciated these jokes, he didn’t want to seem overly impressed, in case Richard felt encouraged to make nothing but.

He knew he was no match for Richard in word games, having already conceded that point back at Fordham’s. It was near the beginning of Chris’ tenure. Richard would pass by his desk, while he was alone, and call out, “Hello, chaps,” then happily wander off. Chris gave the raised eyebrow but this was a very ineffectual comeback. After the greeting became a regular fixture, and Chris was unable to counter it, he shouted back one time,

“There’s only one of me,” to which Richard answered, immediately,

“Oh, gentlemen, don’t both speak at once !”

But now Richard was going to talk about girls.

“So there’s Neeva, from Newcastle. Lovely lass.”

“But …”

“There’s also Douglas. The boyfriend.”

“ Also working there ? You’ll be able to keep tabs on the situation.”

“True, but it seems solid. Didn’t get anywhere at Fordham’s.”

“Who did you like ?”

“All of them. But with Neeva … well, something’s possible. We all went out last Saturday, it was Gerald’s last day.”

“Which one’s that ?”

“Well he’s called Gerald, that’s all you need to know, going into stock broking, or merchant banking … anyway, we’re at the pub, I’m next to Neeva, who seems to have a low tolerance for alcohol,”

“Always a good sign.”

“And we’re talking. She’s saying how she wishes she was a tall blond goddess, which, of course, is cue for me to tell her how great looking she really is, then somehow she’s telling me how she likes to stretch out in front of a fire and just be stroked all night, like a cat.”

Chris stuck his hand up in the air, getting the attention of everyone around him in the West End pub.

“I volunteer for the job, sight unseen.”

“Hands off. Next thing I know, she’s whispering in my ear, ‘I think you’re fucking gorgeous, actually.’ ”

Chris, gave an encouraging nod, raised his glass and took a drink.

“There you are. What happened ?”

“That’s it. Nothing. She went to the bathroom, came back, then she and Doug left. Together.”

“Not good … but … yeah, maybe …”

“What … “

“Maybe, just maybe, things aren’t too great with Doug the thug. Maybe she’d putting out feelers, see if you’d be interested, if and when …”

“I’ll drink to that. So how’s your place ?”

Chris had the job, but was sent to a branch in Kensington. With Richard working in the City, they decided to meet half way, usually drinking in small pubs in side roads off Oxford Street. Neither was entirely happy with their new occupation, Richard’s managerial status merely meaning that he was responsible for staff rotas, while Chris found the food and drink industry to be non-stop, with the store having only quieter periods, never quiet. The wages were similar, but both had more work and a much tighter environment. There were understandably nostalgic about Fordham’s.

“My place ? It’s Kensington. The customers are snobs, the delivery people are snobs, the bloody window cleaner is a snob. The staff ? All got three names; Sophie Fawcett-Brown. Belinda Newington-Heathcoat. Even the staff are snobs. To me. I was driven there, after the interview, by Russell …”

Richard groaned. He remembered the man from his time with the company, Russell being tall and very blond, almost albino, with large square glasses, an upper class voice and no discerning qualities whatsoever. He was never exactly sure what is was that Russell did.

“And we’re driving through Knightsbridge and he asking me if I know this area. Bloody snob, he knows I’m not from London, but just had to play his stupid one-upmanship games. I’m looking for something else.”

“This is London. Everybody’s looking for something else.”

They met only once or twice a week, now, as it had become too expensive. Chris was devastated how quickly money just went, and Richard was constantly using his savings to finance the drinking sessions. They began to meet at each other’s bedsits and go to local pubs, or even just buy a small bottle of whisky from an off-license. On one of these nights Chris, visiting Richard, spoke about his plans for the September term.

“Don’t think I’ll be doing Physics anymore. Think I’ll change to English Lit. Melanie thinks it’s a good idea. And she can help. She’s read every book ever written.”

Richard wasn’t sure how to react. It seemed such a drastic and spontaneous action. Chris justified his decision, explaining how he wasn’t really getting much out of his course and needed a new direction. Yet, Chris seemed happy, as if he were keeping something back for surprise. The opportunity soon came when the half bottle of Teachers was drained. Chris went to his rucksack and pulled out two bottles of French beer, but before Richard could show his delight, Chris topped this act by pulling out two wine bottles.

“I didn’t tell you. My branch has an alcohol license.”

“And you got a staff discount ?” but even while Richard was asking the innocent question, Chris’ eyes told the answer.

It was the start of a new ritual. Richard would buy a small whisky, Chris would arrive with beer and wine. Chris chose the evening before a free day, while Richard was forced to go to work with a determination never to drink again, a resolution that evaporated by lunch time.

This situation suited Richard as he could get drunk at home and not have to spend so much money. His room had a spare coach upon which Chris slept, then made his way home later in the morning. Once or twice a month they met up with Melanie, though Richard sensed a slight reticence on Chris’ part and a certain holding back of information.

Another side effect of the home drinking was that Richard was alienated from Chris’ other friends, not knowing anyone at the branch where he worked. There had been mention of Nuno, a Portuguese chef, and a new German girl Chris spoke highly, then glowingly of, but he wasn’t prepared for the news Chris broke one night.

The whisky was finished, the topic of their workday, likewise. No mention had been made of either of their returns to university. The beers came out and quickly vanished, then the wine. They opened both, clinked and drank from their bottles. They enjoyed the semblance of decadence. While they were speaking about nothing in particular, Chris said,

“I’m moving to Berlin,” then took a long swig, averting his eyes from Richard, who, duly surprised, wanted to know more but knew that Chris would only tell him when he was ready. Thankfully, when Chris began speaking, it was sometimes hard to stop him, and he spoke about Marina, the German girl.

Marina was from what had been West Berlin and had come to London for a break, improve her English, see the sights. Apparently, Chris had been out with her a few times, friendly, platonic dates, but had started to be drawn to her. Very drawn to her.

“We were in this pub and I guess I may have been talking a little loudly, and the tequila slammers didn’t help, when this pouncey barman comes over and asks me to be quiet. One of those, ‘I’m not really a barman,’ sorts, ‘I’m an actor’ pricks.’ But I’ve been drinking tequila, so I’m just dying for a Mexican stand-off, and I slam down my second, it’s a pub for fuck’s sake, over he comes, over comes another barman, young, bald bastard, then the manager. Well, Marina can’t believe it. ‘This would never happen in Berlin’ she said, so I told her, ‘I’m moving to Berlin,’ and she said, ‘Good.’ So that’s it. I’m going to Berlin.”

“Holiday ?”

“No, to live.”

Richard knew that, at least this evening, with the wine already half gone, he couldn’t put up an argument, nor would he want to. He could only face going into work because he knew it was for a specific time period then he’d be back studying. How so many people could live this life was beyond him, so he totally appreciated Chris’ idea, even if it were to remain merely a nice thought.

“So, what do you know about Berlin ?”

“Nothing !” replied Chris, defiantly. “No, wait … the Brandenburg Gate. Olympic Stadium. The Wall. Nazi’s. Burning books.”

“Sounds great. Grey. Rain. Men with short hair in long leather coats, just standing on street corners, like robots.”

“Sauerkraut. Great food in general”

“Uummm … no, I’m all out. Got nothing.”

“Me neither. Oh. Marina. That’s the only reason I need.”

“Ah, I see. Here’s to Marina. Maybe I can meet her soon. ?”

They clinked and finished the wine and spent the remainder of their evening making bad German jokes. Richard wasn’t sure how much to believe, but when he met Chris the following week near China Town, he understood that it was all quite serious.

“Let’s not mention Berlin to Melanie. Could be a bit tricky.”

“OK,” said Richard. Speaking about Berlin while they were still sober proved that Chris really did intend to go. Chris, however, broke his own rule, during the second round of drinks, and Melanie was surprisingly supportive. She, of course, had been there, back in the late Eighties, had stood on the platform by the Wall, had taken a day trip into the East and had stories and advice on what to do and see. Richard began to get interested, but had to contain a smile as Chris wrote in a little notebook under the table, which he passed to him,

DON’T MENTION MARINA !!!

It was the last time the three of them drank together in London. Within a month, Richard had received the first letter from Berlin.

Richard – in trouble – please send money.

Love and Chaos: Contents

11th November 2020

Contents

Part One: London / Berlin August 1991 – September 1993

Richard – 1 London August 1991 – September 1992
Chris – 1 London September 1992
Melanie London September 1992 – Spring 1993
Marina London Spring 1993
Richard – 2 London Spring 1993
Chris – 2 Berlin Spring 1993
Claudia Berlin Spring 1993
Chris – 3 Berlin Spring – Summer 1993
Richard – 3 Berlin September 1993
The Divine Poet From Florence
Chris – 4 Berlin September 1993
Shoulder Berlin September 1993
Steffi Berlin September 1993

Part Two: Berlin November 1993

Richard – 1 London / Berlin Sept – Nov 1993
Chris – 2 Berlin November 1993
The Knock On The Door
Will Berlin November 1993
Firefly Prologue
Firefly
Nuno Berlin November 1993
Chris – 2 Berlin November 1993
Richard – 2 Berlin November 1993

Part Three: London / Berlin Spring – Summer 1994

Richard – 1 London Spring 1994
Chris – 1 Berlin Spring 1994
Kurt
Richard – 2 London Summer 1994
Hitch
Chris – 2 Berlin Summer 1994

Part Four: Berlin Summer 1994

Richard – 1 Berlin Summer 1994
Lorelei – 1 Berlin Summer 1994
Chris – 1 Berlin Summer 1994
The Concert of Grotesques
Gabi – 1 Berlin Summer 1994
Chris – 2 Berlin Summer 1994
Monika – 1 Berlin Summer 1994
Richard – 1 Berlin Summer 1994
Arizona Al – 1 Berlin Summer 1994

Part Five: Berlin Autumn – Winter 1994

How A Coffee Break Started A New Scientific Theory
Chris – 1 Berlin Autumn 1994
Richard – 1 Berlin Autumn 1994
Burkhard – 1 Berlin Autumn 1994
Chris – 2 Berlin Autumn 1994
Tommy – 1 Berlin Autumn 1994
Tommy – 2 Berlin Autumn 1994
Richard – 2 Berlin Autumn 1994
Chris – 1 Berlin Autumn 1994
Sylvester – 1 Berlin New Year’s Eve 1994

Part Six: Berlin / Winter – Spring 1995

Chris – 1 Berlin January 1995
Monika – 1 Berlin January 1995
Richard – 1 Berlin February 1995
Three English Portraits
Arizona Al – 1 Berlin February 1995
Monika – 2 Berlin February 1995
Johan – 1 Berlin February 1995
Descriptions Of ADoctor
Jake – 1 Berlin February 1995
Chris – 2 Berlin March 1995
Richard – 2 Berlin March 1995
Daniel – 1 Berlin April 1995

Part Seven: Berlin / London / USA Spring – Summer 1995

Stefan – 1 Berlin Spring 1995
Daniel – 1 Berlin May 1995
Chris – 1 Berlin May 1995
Boris – 1 Berlin
Ragno Prologue Berlin Summer 1995
Ragno – 1 Berlin early – mid 1990’s
Richard – 1 Berlin June 1995
Daniel – 2 Berlin June 1995
Monika – 1 Berlin June 1995
Alan – 1 London July 1995
Eric – 1 L.A. USA July 1995

Part Eight: Berlin. Summer 1995

Alan – 1 Berlin August 1995
CallMeHerman
Chris – 1 Berlin August 1995
Richard – 1 Berlin August 1995
Julie – 1 Berlin September 1995
Chris – 2 Berlin September 1995
Daniel – 1 Berlin October 1995
Alan – 2 Berlin October 1995

Part Nine: Berlin.

Daniel – 1 Berlin November 1995
Johanna – 1 Berlin
Serge – 1 Berlin

IELTS: My hometown

28th October 2020 Mindset 2 Unit 1: Speaking

My Little Town - Wikipedia

A new class, new students, so let’s hit the ground running, get the students mixing, talking to each other and up from their seats. I prepared a questionnaire. They have to interview different classmates and learn a little about them

Gather information about your classmates

QuestionNameResponse
Why are you studying IELTS ?
Where would you most like to visit and why ?
Would you like to live abroad ?
What is the hardest thing about learning English ?
How do you solve this ?
How often do you use English ?

Do you read, write or speak at school or at work ?
What do you most like about western culture or
countries ?
What idioms do you know ? 

This lead into the idiom it’s raining cats and dogs which most students had heard (it means raining heavily).

Today’s lesson is based on types of housing and areas; some extra terms:

gritty / industrial

quite / safe / residential

boring / peaceful / suburban

bustling / vibrant / city centre

Which would you apply to these:

underthepier,southwold/alternative arcades

All photos are from the UK

Ask each other about your hometown or your neighbourhood.

What do you like about your neighbourhood ?

What don’t you like ?

Explain why you don’t like something.

British Food: IELTS sample answers continued

1st October 2020

Index of /wp-content/uploads/2019/01/

Today we’ll turn our attention to Part 2: uninterrupted speaking for up to two minutes.

Remember, you have a minute to write notes. Use the method which works best for you, but I suggest you write a keyword that will help you recall L-FWs or an idiom.

Look at the previous blogs to see some useful words: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/09/28/british-food-various-exercises-various-levels/

mouth-watering / nutritious / filling / spicy / bland / traditional /

prices can be sky-high / cost an arm and a leg / astronomical / not my cup of tea

And: https://thaypaulsnotes.com/2020/09/29/british-food-part-2-sample-answers-for-ielts/

Indian Street Food in London Compilation - including some Restaurant Food  (Part 3). - YouTube
Indian street food in London

Part 2: What problems would you have with the food if you lived in the UK ?

You should say:

what UK food you know,

if you have ever tried it

if you have ever seen it

if you think you would enjoy it … and why (or why not).

Try to speak for the full 2 minutes. By now, you should know the formula: great introduction, some positive points, some negative, an anecdote, then a conclusion.

Well, that’s a very pertinent question because recently, I have been thinking about where I would like to study, and the UK is certainly top of my list. I am sure there would be some culture shock, especially when it comes to the food.

In class, we have seen some photos of traditional food such as toad in the hole, the full English breakfast and of course, the traditional Sunday roast. I think that British people have special food at Christmas time with … let me remember … turkey and vegetables then a special pudding which they set alight. I guess they use strong alcohol to make it burn. It looks tremendous fun.

I come from a small town, so I only had local food, but now I live in a big city, I can experience more western cuisine although we mostly eat fast food. So, no, I haven’t tried British food. Not yet, but the Christmas food looks mouth-watering.

Sometimes I watch a movie and I look out for what people eat. It looks very different from my country. Oh, of course, we use chopsticks here, as well as spoons, but they use a knife and fork in the UK. I tried once. My friend Jenny, who went to London on holiday, came back with a present for me. It was a knife and fork. I tried, I really tried but I couldn’t get the hang of it.

However when I see people eat in restaurants, I am a little nervous. They look so expensive. It must cost an arm and a leg to eat there.

Would I enjoy it ? I am not sure but I think so. My favourite food is chicken and sea food so I am sure I can get those easily. Maybe the food would possibly be bland compared to Asian food because we use lots of fresh vegetables and spices. On the other hand, new food is part of the new culture. Now I start to feel hungry !

What is 'mukbang'? Inside the viral Korean food YouTube trend

Unusual London Buildings. What do you think they are ?

6th September 2020

A lesson for all ages and all levels, just adapt to suit your students’ ability. First, show the photos and try to elicit what the buildings are for, or their original function.

For Speaking Level 3 or IELTS-standard students, they can explain their reasons and use target language, adjectives, adverbs and LFW (low-frequency words). Furthermore, it shows students a different aspect of London (it’s not just Big Ben, London Eye and Tower Bridge).

Now, without further ado, the photos:

 

Tate Modern

Was built 1947 – 1963 to be used as a power station (designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott who also designed Battersea Power Station and the iconic red phone boxes).

Gallery opened in 2000 by the Queen

Shows British and international art

One of the largest museums in the world

in 2018, there were 5.8 million visitors

Globe Theatre

Was built 1599, burnt down 1613.

Rebuilt and opened in 1997

Has plays by Shakespeare, as well as modern plays.

Has 857 seats and 700 standing spaces. People who stand are known as ‘groundlings.’

“To be or not to be,” is from Hamlet.

Police Station

Was built in the 1920s

Only big enough for two people

Has a telephone inside

Made from an old lamppost

Now used for storing brooms

Lloyd’s Building

Completed in 1986

Architect was Richard Rogers

Lloyds are a world famous insurance company.

The lifts are on the outside to make more space inside.

It is 95.1 m tall or 312 ft.

New Zealand House

The building was opened by the Queen in 1963

It is the only tall building in the area.

The House has 18 floors.

However … there is something very special for Vietnamese … can you see the blue circle ?

There used to be the Carlton Hotel here, but is was destroyed in World War II

Ho Chi Minh worked in the kitchen at the hotel

Carlton Hotel, London - Wikipedia
The old Carlton Hotel where Ho Chi Minh once worked

Activities

Young Learners

Stick fact sheets around the classroom. Students, in groups, have to collect information about basic facts such as when the building was opened, and an interesting fact, then present to the class.

Adult Speaking Classes

Elicit uses of bulidings, then ask them if there are any similar buildings in their city. What interesting buildings would they show tourists ? A student has to describe one of the buildings and the other have to guess which one.

IELTS

Students are assigned a building and they have to make a presentation of up to two-minutes in length (to practise for the speaking test). They may be allowed to use the internet for additional information but they are NOT allowed to merely read verbatim from Wikipedia !

As this is an IELTS exercise, we are looking for;

Good, strong introduction

Creative use of adverbs + adjectives

Low-frequency words

Opinion phrases

Idiomatic language

Anecdote or a personal review, giving reasons for their thoughts

Target Language:

Quite unusual / eye-catching / remarkable / innovative / quintessentially British / controversial / brilliant /

It’s not to my particular taste / / I have my heart set on visiting / a unique experience (now add an adverb) / a truly unique experience / a magnet for tourists /

17 Signs That You Probably Need A Break From London - Secret London

Third conditional

A compilation of exercises and examples

18th July 2020

Third conditional We talk about something that happened to us in the past and how we would have changed it IF we had known some information.

A basic example: A visit a friend and it is her birthday, but I didn’t know.

If I had known it was her birthday, I would have bought her a present.

To illustrate: my friend Richard …

Related image

… is married to Ms Linh. Yesterday was their wedding anniversary … but he forgot. Ms Linh was …

Image result for angry asain lady

She was absolutely livid (extremely angry, disappointed and heartbroken)

If he had remembered it was his anniversary, he would have bought her a present, some flowers and taken her out to a romantic restaurant.

However, it is too late NOW ! He’s in the doghouse (in trouble).

Notice all the past tense verbs. Furthermore, would is commonly used in conditional sentences.

If + Subject + had + past participle (verb 3) …… subject + would (or wouldn’t) have.

Now – your turn.

Make a story about my friend Tom, who came to Sai Gon on holiday:

My friend Tom, from London

Tom came to Sai Gon, and wanted to go to a nice bar. He heard about the Skybar in Bitexco. The bar is quite luxurious.

Panoramic views over the Sai Gon skyline.

Image result for friendly viet bar girls

Tom began to make friends, and invited them for cocktails. However, when the bill came …

And …

What do you think happened ?

Write a sentence, in the third conditional to explain Tom’s situation.

Project work

These people also came to Sai Gon. Write third conditional sentences to encapsulate their situation

Try to use some of these words or phrases:

typical / typically / obvious / obviously / insist / suggest / essential 

Why didn’t she (he, they) … have a good time ?

If (he/ she / they) had known it was so (expensive, noisy, boring …)

Emma, 19 Backpacker. Likes shopping, dancing, eating street food. She didn’t book ahead and was too tired and hot to walk around looking for a cheap hotel so she had to stay in a four-star hotel and spend nearly all of her money.

Japanese family. Like family activities, souvenirs and quiet nights. They stayed in the noisy backpacker area, with shouting and screaming and drunken karaoke all night.

Young men wanting a ‘Stag Night’ party, here to have a last hurrah ! They chose a quiet town in the Mekong Delta, but there was only one bar and it closed at 8.00 pm.

(a stag night is a wild party for a man before he gets married. There is normally a lot of drinking … and other activities)

Jewish students. They do not eat pork, or shell-fish. Want to see history and temples. Their guide keeps taking them to eat sea-food and pork restaurants because the guide only speaks Vietnamese and Chinese, and the students only speak Hebrew and English.

If these visitors came to your city or town, could you recommend places for them to visit ?

What are your suggestions?

Remember, Emma wants somewhere fun but cheap, the family want someone quiet but close to family attractions, the young men want lots of bars and clubs, while the Jewish students have strict dietary rules.

Now … some more exercises:

I was very hungry but too lazy to cook, so I went out to grab a bite to eat.

I thought I’d try the new restaurant. 

I, obviously, ordered pho, (traditional Vietnamese food).

However, after I had eaten 

I saw the chef !

If I had known the chef was so filthy, I wouldn’t have eaten there !

This is the 3rd conditional. 

Something that happened in the past BUT you can’t change it now.

If I had known the film was so bad, I never would have gone !

If he had bought his wife flowers, she wouldn’t have been angry at him

If they had studied English, they would have passed the test.

Finally …

… a true story that my history teacher told me back in London.

My teacher was a somewhat dishevelled gentleman in his mid-30s. Let’s call him Mr Bowditch:

Mr Bowditch, history teacher at an east London school

Mr Bowditch lived in a bedsit, which is basically renting one room in a large house and sharing the kitchen and bathroom with other tenants. His room was not particularly comfortable:

One night, Mr Bowditch was in his room and began to feel a little hungry. He wanted some chocolate so decided to go to the off-license and buy some sweets (an off-licence is a shop that sells basic food and sweets but also alcohol and cigarettes. It used to be open until 11.00pm when most shops would close around 6.00 pm). He decided to buy, among other items, some ‘Fry’s Turkish Delight’ a sort of jelly covered in chocolate:

OK, so far so good. However, Mr Bowditch lived in a rather bad part of London, it wasn’t always safe to walk alone at night. Unfortunately, on the way home, Mr Bowditch meet the following young men:

They called out to Mr Bowditch and stopped him walking. They demanded:

Mr Bowditch had none, as he had just spent his money on sweets (candy). They didn’t believe him and began to search him. He showed them:

That was all he had … a few pounds, about 100 000 VND. The men became very angry and aggressive. Suddenly, they heard a police car siren. The men tried to drag Mr Bowditch into the tunnel, away from the road but he is very tall and stopped them. As the police car got closer, the men ran away. Mr Bowditch has never eaten ‘Fry’s Turkish Delight’ again.

There are several instances of the third conditional in the above story.

If Mr Bowditch had bought sweets on his way home, he wouldn’t have gone out later and been mugged (mugged means being robbed, often with violence or the threat of violence).

If Mr Bowditch had gone to a different shop, he wouldn’t have meet the muggers.

If the police car hadn’t been passing, Mr Bowditch might have been seriously hurt.

If Mr Bowditch hadn’t been so tall, he would have been dragged into the tunnel and maybe beaten or worse.

The structure: the first clause starts with ‘If’ then using a comma before completing the sentence. The first verb can be positive or negative (in the examples, I use ‘had’ and ‘hadn’t’).

We use this to talk about things that DIDN’T happen.